HVO Mauna Loa Status

Recent Mauna Loa Status Reports, Updates, and Information Releases

HAWAIIAN VOLCANO OBSERVATORY MONTHLY UPDATE
U.S. Geological Survey
Friday, December 5, 2014 10:02 AM PST (Friday, December 5, 2014 18:02 UTC)


MAUNA LOA VOLCANO (VNUM #332020)
19°28'30" N 155°36'29" W, Summit Elevation 13681 ft (4170 m)
Current Volcano Alert Level: NORMAL
Current Aviation Color Code: GREEN

Seismicity continued to be slightly elevated; deformation patterns may suggest renewed inflation.

Monitoring data through the month of November 2014:

Seismicity: Earthquake rates on the Upper Southwest Rift Zone (Sulfur Cone) remain elevated, with slightly stronger earthquakes than seen in previous months. Seismicity rates in the Mokuʻāweoweo Crater remains elevated with approximately 50 very small events in the past month at shallow (<5 km) depths. There were approximately 15 earthquakes in the past month on the west flank of Mauna Loa. All earthquakes in the past month have been small relative to earthquake sequences observed before eruptions in 1975 and 1984.

Deformation: GPS data continue to show a broad pattern of displacements suggesting inflation of one or more magma reservoirs, with the majority of the volume accumulating in a dike-like body beneath the caldera and upper SW rift zone. Displacements continued at the same average rates measured since the increase in rates in late June/early July.

Gas: No significant changes in SO2, CO2 were recorded by the Mokuʻāweoweo gas monitor. Notably though, we have continued to observe an increasing fumarole temperature. As discussed last month, this temperature increase, while numerically small, deviates significantly from the seasonal trend observed at this site since fumarole temperature began in 2005. Between the beginning of October and the beginning of December, this average temperature increased from ca. 72 deg C to 79 deg C. The major portion of this change occurred between 11/1 and 11/21.

Background: Re-inflation of Mauna Loa's shallow magma storage reservoirs started immediately following the most recent eruption in 1984, then turned to deflation for almost a decade. In mid-2002, inflation started again, just after a brief swarm of deep long-period (LP) earthquakes. A more intense swarm of several thousand deep Long Period (LP) earthquakes occurred in late 2004, immediately preceding a dramatic increase in inflation rate. Inflation slowed again in 2006, ceased altogether in late 2009, and resumed slowly in late 2010.

Rising gradually to more than 4 km above sea level, Mauna Loa is the largest active volcano on our planet. Its long submarine flanks descend to the sea floor an additional 5 km, and the sea floor in turn is depressed by Mauna Loa's great mass another 8 km. This makes the volcano's summit about 17 km (56,000 ft) above its base! The enormous volcano covers half of the Island of Hawai`i and by itself amounts to about 85 percent of all the other Hawaiian Islands combined.

Mauna Loa is the largest active volcano on Earth and is among Earth's most active volcanoes, having erupted 33 times since its first well-documented historical eruption in 1843. Its most recent eruption was in 1984. For more information on Mauna Loa, see the USGS Fact sheet available at http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2012/3104/fs2012-3104.pdf.

CONTACT INFORMATION:
askHVO@usgs.gov

The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory is one of five volcano observatories within the U.S. Geological Survey and is responsible for monitoring volcanoes and earthquakes in Hawai`i.
HAWAIIAN VOLCANO OBSERVATORY MONTHLY UPDATE
U.S. Geological Survey
Saturday, November 8, 2014 3:50 PM PST (Saturday, November 8, 2014 23:50 UTC)


MAUNA LOA VOLCANO (VNUM #332020)
19°28'30" N 155°36'29" W, Summit Elevation 13681 ft (4170 m)
Current Volcano Alert Level: NORMAL
Current Aviation Color Code: GREEN

Seismicity continued to be slightly elevated; deformation patterns may suggest renewed inflation.

Monitoring data through the month of October 2014:

Seismicity: Earthquake rates on the Upper Southwest Rift Zone (Sulfur Cone) remain elevated, though similar to the past couple of months. Seismicity rates in the Mokuʻāweoweo Caldera remains elevated with approximately 40 very small events in the past month at shallow (<5 km) depths. All earthquakes in the past month have been small relative to earthquake sequences observed before eruptions in 1975 and 1984.

Deformation: GPS data continue to show a broad pattern of displacements suggesting inflation. Preliminary modeling shows the data to be consistent with inflation of one or more magma reservoirs, with the majority of the volume accumulating in a dike-like body beneath the caldera and upper rift zones. Reinflation may have started very slowly in April or May of this year. Displacement rates have been variable, with higher rates in July and August, slowing in September and possibly slightly picking up again near the end of October.

Gas: No significant changes in SO2, CO2 were recorded by the Mokuʻāweoweo gas monitor; however, a minor deviation in fumarole temperature was recorded over the past two months. The correlation between fumarole temperature increase, elevated seismic tremor levels, and tilt values reported in September was coincidental. This month, we've continued to record a fairly sharp anomalous 2-3 degree C temperature increase.

Background: Re-inflation of Mauna Loa's shallow magma storage reservoirs started immediately following the most recent eruption in 1984, then turned to deflation for almost a decade. In mid-2002, inflation started again, just after a brief swarm of deep long-period (LP) earthquakes. A more intense swarm of several thousand deep Long Period (LP) earthquakes occurred in late 2004, immediately preceding a dramatic increase in inflation rate. Inflation slowed again in 2006, ceased altogether in late 2009, and resumed slowly in late 2010.

Rising gradually to more than 4 km above sea level, Mauna Loa is the largest active volcano on our planet. Its long submarine flanks descend to the sea floor an additional 5 km, and the sea floor in turn is depressed by Mauna Loa's great mass another 8 km. This makes the volcano's summit about 17 km (56,000 ft) above its base! The enormous volcano covers half of the Island of Hawai`i and by itself amounts to about 85 percent of all the other Hawaiian Islands combined.

Mauna Loa is the largest active volcano on Earth and is among Earth's most active volcanoes, having erupted 33 times since its first well-documented historical eruption in 1843. Its most recent eruption was in 1984. For more information on Mauna Loa, see the USGS Fact sheet available at http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2012/3104/fs2012-3104.pdf.

CONTACT INFORMATION:
askHVO@usgs.gov

The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory is one of five volcano observatories within the U.S. Geological Survey and is responsible for monitoring volcanoes and earthquakes in Hawai`i.
HAWAIIAN VOLCANO OBSERVATORY MONTHLY UPDATE
U.S. Geological Survey
Wednesday, October 15, 2014 1:57 PM PDT (Wednesday, October 15, 2014 20:57 UTC)


MAUNA LOA VOLCANO (VNUM #332020)
19°28'30" N 155°36'29" W, Summit Elevation 13681 ft (4170 m)
Current Volcano Alert Level: NORMAL
Current Aviation Color Code: GREEN

Seismicity continued to be slightly elevated; deformation patterns may suggest renewed inflation.

Monitoring data through the month of September 2014:

Seismicity: Seismicity at Mauna Loa remains elevated in several parts of the volcano. In late September, a swarm occurred to the west of Moku`āweoweo Crater. The swarm had a maximum magnitude of 2.4 and several events that were large enough to be located. In total, there were up to 150 separate earthquakes that were part of this swarm, most too small to be recorded on enough stations to be accurately located, however we infer that their location is similar to the formal locations of the larger events. The same area had a swarm in September and October of 2013. Several long period earthquakes were present at depths from 50 km to the shallow edifice, with most LP earthquakes between 9 and 15 km depth. Earthquake rates on the Upper Southwest Rift Zone (Sulfur Cone) remain elevated, though similar to the past couple of months. Seismicity rates in the Moku`āweoweo Crater increased over previous months with approximately 50 very small events in the past month at shallow (<5 km) depths. All earthquakes in the past month have been small relative to earthquake sequences observed before eruptions in 1975 and 1984.

Deformation: On Mauna Loa, GPS data continue to show a broad pattern of displacements suggesting inflation. Preliminary modeling shows the data to be consistent with inflation of one or more magma reservoirs, with the majority of the volume accumulating in a dike-like body beneath the caldera and upper rift zones. Reinflation may have started very slowly in April or May of this year. Displacement rates have been variable, with higher rates in July and August and slowing again in September.

Gas: No significant changes in SO2 or CO2 were recorded by the Moku`āweoweo gas monitor in September.

Background: Re-inflation of Mauna Loa's shallow magma storage reservoirs started immediately following the most recent eruption in 1984, then turned to deflation for almost a decade. In mid-2002, inflation started again, just after a brief swarm of deep long-period (LP) earthquakes. A more intense swarm of several thousand deep Long Period (LP) earthquakes occurred in late 2004, immediately preceding a dramatic increase in inflation rate. Inflation slowed again in 2006, ceased altogether in late 2009, and resumed slowly in late 2010.

Rising gradually to more than 4 km above sea level, Mauna Loa is the largest active volcano on our planet. Its long submarine flanks descend to the sea floor an additional 5 km, and the sea floor in turn is depressed by Mauna Loa's great mass another 8 km. This makes the volcano's summit about 17 km (56,000 ft) above its base! The enormous volcano covers half of the Island of Hawai`i and by itself amounts to about 85 percent of all the other Hawaiian Islands combined.

Mauna Loa is the largest active volcano on Earth and is among Earth's most active volcanoes, having erupted 33 times since its first well-documented historical eruption in 1843. Its most recent eruption was in 1984. For more information on Mauna Loa, see the USGS Fact sheet available at http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2012/3104/fs2012-3104.pdf.

CONTACT INFORMATION:
askHVO@usgs.gov

The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory is one of five volcano observatories within the U.S. Geological Survey and is responsible for monitoring volcanoes and earthquakes in Hawai`i.
HAWAIIAN VOLCANO OBSERVATORY MONTHLY UPDATE
U.S. Geological Survey
Thursday, September 4, 2014 12:06 PM PDT (Thursday, September 4, 2014 19:06 UTC)


MAUNA LOA VOLCANO (VNUM #332020)
19°28'30" N 155°36'29" W, Summit Elevation 13681 ft (4170 m)
Current Volcano Alert Level: NORMAL
Current Aviation Color Code: GREEN

Seismicity continued to be slightly elevated; deformation patterns may suggest renewed inflation.

Monitoring data through the month of August 2014:

Seismicity: Seismicity at Mauna Loa remains elevated in several parts of the volcano. In early August a swarm of Deep (45-50 km) Long Period (DLP) earthquakes occurred under the volcano. It was the most numerous swarm of earthquakes in this region since a swarm of DLP earthquakes and deformation in 2004 and 2005. It is common at Mauna Loa and other volcanoes worldwide to associate deep magma intrusion with the occurrence of DLP earthquakes. Earthquake rates on the Upper Southwest Rift Zone (Sulfur Cone) and West Flank remain elevated, though similar to the past couple of months. Seismicity rates in the Mokuʻāweoweo Crater increased over previous months with at over 20 events in the past month at shallow (<2 km) depths. All earthquakes in the past month have been small relative to earthquake sequences observed before eruptions in 1975 and 1984.

Deformation: GPS data show a broad pattern of horizontal displacements suggesting renewed inflation, with the majority of the volume accumulating in a dike-like body beneath the caldera. InSAR is starting to show the double-lobed pattern typical of dike widening. Reinflation may have started in April or May of this year. Displacement rates in August were a little more than half those measured during the height of the 2002-2009 inflation in 2004-2005.

Gas: Instrumentation was not functional during the month of August.

Background: Re-inflation of Mauna Loa's shallow magma storage reservoirs started immediately following the most recent eruption in 1984, then turned to deflation for almost a decade. In mid-2002, inflation started again, just after a brief swarm of deep long-period (LP) earthquakes. A more intense swarm of several thousand deep Long Period (LP) earthquakes occurred in late 2004, immediately preceding a dramatic increase in inflation rate. Inflation slowed again in 2006, ceased altogether in late 2009, and resumed slowly in late 2010.

Rising gradually to more than 4 km above sea level, Mauna Loa is the largest active volcano on our planet. Its long submarine flanks descend to the sea floor an additional 5 km, and the sea floor in turn is depressed by Mauna Loa's great mass another 8 km. This makes the volcano's summit about 17 km (56,000 ft) above its base! The enormous volcano covers half of the Island of Hawai`i and by itself amounts to about 85 percent of all the other Hawaiian Islands combined.

Mauna Loa is the largest active volcano on Earth and is among Earth's most active volcanoes, having erupted 33 times since its first well-documented historical eruption in 1843. Its most recent eruption was in 1984. For more information on Mauna Loa, see the USGS Fact sheet available at http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2012/3104/fs2012-3104.pdf.

CONTACT INFORMATION:
askHVO@usgs.gov

The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory is one of five volcano observatories within the U.S. Geological Survey and is responsible for monitoring volcanoes and earthquakes in Hawai`i.
HAWAIIAN VOLCANO OBSERVATORY MONTHLY UPDATE
U.S. Geological Survey
Wednesday, August 6, 2014 7:43 AM PDT (Wednesday, August 6, 2014 14:43 UTC)


MAUNA LOA VOLCANO (VNUM #332020)
19°28'30" N 155°36'29" W, Summit Elevation 13681 ft (4170 m)
Current Volcano Alert Level: NORMAL
Current Aviation Color Code: GREEN

Seismicity continued to be slightly elevated; deformation patterns may suggest renewed inflation.

Monitoring data through the month of July 2014:

Seismicity: Seismicity continued to be elevated over the average rates of the past 25 years-9 shallow events below summit area, 9 events to the west of Mokuʻāweoweo Crater (<13 km), 2 events to the north of Mokuʻāweoweo Crater, 23 shallow events on the Upper Southwest Rift (Sulfur Cone), 0 shallow events on the Lower Southwest Rift, 1 shallow event on the NE Rift Zone, 3 Deep Long Period Events.

Deformation: GPS data show a broad pattern of horizontal displacements suggesting renewed inflation, which may have started in April 2014, with an increase in rate in July. Displacement rates are still low compared to rates just after the 1984 eruption and during the height of the 2002-2009 inflation.

Gas: No significant changes in SO2, CO2 were recorded by the Mokuaweoweo gas and temperature monitors through July 16th, when network links were disrupted by a lightning storm that hit HVO. We're working to restore these links. Daily average fumarole temperature during the month continued to decline to about 73.5 C from 74 C through mid-month, still not back down to the 71.7 degrees average of several months ago.

Background: Re-inflation of Mauna Loa's shallow magma storage reservoirs started immediately following the most recent eruption in 1984, then turned to deflation for almost a decade. In mid-2002, inflation started again, just after a brief swarm of deep long-period (LP) earthquakes. A more intense swarm of several thousand deep Long Period (LP) earthquakes occurred in late 2004, immediately preceding a dramatic increase in inflation rate. Inflation slowed again in 2006, ceased altogether in late 2009, and resumed slowly in late 2010.

Rising gradually to more than 4 km above sea level, Mauna Loa is the largest active volcano on our planet. Its long submarine flanks descend to the sea floor an additional 5 km, and the sea floor in turn is depressed by Mauna Loa's great mass another 8 km. This makes the volcano's summit about 17 km (56,000 ft) above its base! The enormous volcano covers half of the Island of Hawai`i and by itself amounts to about 85 percent of all the other Hawaiian Islands combined.

Mauna Loa is the largest active volcano on Earth and is among Earth's most active volcanoes, having erupted 33 times since its first well-documented historical eruption in 1843. Its most recent eruption was in 1984. For more information on Mauna Loa, see the USGS Fact sheet available at http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2012/3104/fs2012-3104.pdf.

CONTACT INFORMATION:
askHVO@usgs.gov

The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory is one of five volcano observatories within the U.S. Geological Survey and is responsible for monitoring volcanoes and earthquakes in Hawai`i.
HAWAIIAN VOLCANO OBSERVATORY MONTHLY UPDATE
U.S. Geological Survey
Monday, July 21, 2014 7:30 AM PDT (Monday, July 21, 2014 14:30 UTC)


MAUNA LOA VOLCANO (VNUM #332020)
19°28'30" N 155°36'29" W, Summit Elevation 13681 ft (4170 m)
Current Volcano Alert Level: NORMAL
Current Aviation Color Code: GREEN

No significant changes were recorded through May 2014.

Seismicity: Seismicity continued to be elevated over the average rates of the past 25 years-12 shallow events below summit area, 6 events to the west of Mokuʻāweoweo Crater (<13 km), 5 events to the north of Mokuʻāweoweo Crater, 16 shallow events on the Upper Southwest Rift (Sulfur Cone), 4 shallow events on the Lower Southwest Rift, 2 shallow events on the NE Rift Zone.

Deformation: GPS and tilt networks did not record any changes in deformation rates or patterns that were significantly above the error of the measurements during June. Southeasterly motion of the south flank continued.

Gas: No significant changes in SO2, CO2 were recorded by the Mokuaweoweo gas and temperature monitors in May. Daily average fumarole temperature during the month declined from 76 to 75 degrees C, still not back down though to the 71.7 degrees average of several months ago.


Background: Re-inflation of Mauna Loa's shallow magma storage reservoirs started immediately following the most recent eruption in 1984, then turned to deflation for almost a decade. In mid-2002, inflation started again, just after a brief swarm of deep long-period (LP) earthquakes. A more intense swarm of several thousand deep Long Period (LP) earthquakes occurred in late 2004, immediately preceding a dramatic increase in inflation rate. Inflation slowed again in 2006, ceased altogether in late 2009, and resumed slowly in late 2010.

Rising gradually to more than 4 km above sea level, Mauna Loa is the largest active volcano on our planet. Its long submarine flanks descend to the sea floor an additional 5 km, and the sea floor in turn is depressed by Mauna Loa's great mass another 8 km. This makes the volcano's summit about 17 km (56,000 ft) above its base! The enormous volcano covers half of the Island of Hawai`i and by itself amounts to about 85 percent of all the other Hawaiian Islands combined.

Mauna Loa is the largest active volcano on Earth and is among Earth's most active volcanoes, having erupted 33 times since its first well-documented historical eruption in 1843. Its most recent eruption was in 1984. For more information on Mauna Loa, see the USGS Fact sheet available at http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2012/3104/fs2012-3104.pdf.

CONTACT INFORMATION:
askHVO@usgs.gov

The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory is one of five volcano observatories within the U.S. Geological Survey and is responsible for monitoring volcanoes and earthquakes in Hawai`i.
HAWAIIAN VOLCANO OBSERVATORY MONTHLY UPDATE
U.S. Geological Survey
Sunday, June 8, 2014 8:14 AM PDT (Sunday, June 8, 2014 15:14 UTC)


MAUNA LOA VOLCANO (VNUM #332020)
19°28'30" N 155°36'29" W, Summit Elevation 13681 ft (4170 m)
Current Volcano Alert Level: NORMAL
Current Aviation Color Code: GREEN

No significant changes were recorded through May 2014.

Seismicity: Seismicity continued to be elevated over the average rates of the past 25 years-12 shallow events below summit area, 7 events to the west of Moku`āweoweo Crater (<13 km), 5 events to the north of Moku`āweoweo Crater, 17 shallow events on the Upper Southwest Rift (Sulfur Cone), 2 shallow events on the Lower Southwest Rift, 2 shallow events on the NE Rift Zone.

Deformation: GPS and tilt networks did not record any changes in deformation rates or patterns that were significantly above the error of the measurements during May. Southeasterly motion of the south flank continued.

Gas: No significant changes in SO2, CO2 were recorded by the Mokuaweoweo gas and temperature monitors in May. Daily average fumarole temperature during the month declined from 76 to 75 degrees C, still not back down though to the 71.7 degrees average of several months ago.


Background: Re-inflation of Mauna Loa's shallow magma storage reservoirs started immediately following the most recent eruption in 1984, then turned to deflation for almost a decade. In mid-2002, inflation started again, just after a brief swarm of deep long-period (LP) earthquakes. A more intense swarm of several thousand deep Long Period (LP) earthquakes occurred in late 2004, immediately preceding a dramatic increase in inflation rate. Inflation slowed again in 2006, ceased altogether in late 2009, and resumed slowly in late 2010.

Rising gradually to more than 4 km above sea level, Mauna Loa is the largest active volcano on our planet. Its long submarine flanks descend to the sea floor an additional 5 km, and the sea floor in turn is depressed by Mauna Loa's great mass another 8 km. This makes the volcano's summit about 17 km (56,000 ft) above its base! The enormous volcano covers half of the Island of Hawai`i and by itself amounts to about 85 percent of all the other Hawaiian Islands combined.

Mauna Loa is the largest active volcano on Earth and is among Earth's most active volcanoes, having erupted 33 times since its first well-documented historical eruption in 1843. Its most recent eruption was in 1984. Fore more information on Mauna Loa, see the USGS Fact sheet available at http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2012/3104/fs2012-3104.pdf.

CONTACT INFORMATION:
askHVO@usgs.gov

The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory is one of five volcano observatories within the U.S. Geological Survey and is responsible for monitoring volcanoes and earthquakes in Hawai`i.

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For more information about the Volcano Alert Level and Aviation Color Code, please see the U.S. Geological Survey's Alert Notification System for Volcanic Activity Fact Sheet (pdf) or the USGS Volcanic Activity Alert-Notification System web page.