HVO Mauna Loa Status

Recent Mauna Loa Status Reports, Updates, and Information Releases

HAWAIIAN VOLCANO OBSERVATORY MONTHLY UPDATE
Wednesday, April 9, 2014 7:54 AM HST (Wednesday, April 9, 2014 17:54 UTC)


HALEAKALA VOLCANO (VNUM #332060)
20°42'29" N 156°15' W, Summit Elevation 10023 ft (3055 m)
Current Volcano Alert Level: NORMAL
Current Aviation Color Code: GREEN

There were no significant changes during the month of March, 2014. No earthquakes were located beneath the volcano.

Background: The most recent eruption on Haleakala was probably between A.D. 1480 and 1600. Haleakala Volcano is monitored by a continuous GPS instrument and a seismometer located near the southwest edge of the crater. Key sites on Haleakala are resurveyed using GPS receivers every few years to detect any changes in the volcano's shape.

HUALALAI VOLCANO (VNUM #332040)
19°41'31" N 155°52'12" W, Summit Elevation 8278 ft (2523 m)
Current Volcano Alert Level: NORMAL
Current Aviation Color Code: GREEN

No unusual seismicity or deformation was detected during the month of March, 2014. One shallow earthquake was located in the vicinity of the summit and northwest rift zone with another quake located at depths greater than 13 km.


Background: Hualalai is the third most active volcano on Hawai`i Island and typically erupts 2 to 3 times per 1,000 years. Hualalai last erupted in 1801 and, more recently, had a damaging seismic swarm in 1929 that probably was the result of a shallow intrusion of magma. Hualalai Volcano is monitored by one continuous GPS instrument and a seismometer located southeast of the summit as well as several instruments on nearby flanks of Mauna Loa and Mauna Kea. Key sites on Hualalai and West Mauna Loa are resurveyed using GPS receivers every few years to detect any changes in the volcano's shape.

LO`IHI VOLCANO
18°55'12" N 155°16'12" W, Summit Elevation -3199 ft (-975 m)
Current Volcano Alert Level: UNASSIGNED
Current Aviation Color Code: UNASSIGNED

No unusual seismicity was detected during the month of March, 2014. Five earthquakes were located in the vicinity of Lo`ihi volcano.


Background: Lo`ihi was last active in 1952, when activity probably generated a small local tsunami, and 1996. There are no working instruments on Lo`ihi Volcano whose peak is about 1,000 m below sea level. All real-time information about the volcano is derived from land-based seismometers on Hawai`i Island.

MAUNA KEA VOLCANO (VNUM #332030)
19°49'12" N 155°28'12" W, Summit Elevation 13796 ft (4205 m)
Current Volcano Alert Level: NORMAL
Current Aviation Color Code: GREEN

No unusual deformation or seismicity was detected during the month of March, 2014. Eight deep (> 13 km) and twelve shallower earthquakes were detected beneath the volcano.

The shrinkage of Lake Waiau since 2010 and its possible rebound during the recent winter storms is highlighted in a recently published article available at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2014EO140001/abstract. The changes in the lake level are thought to be due to an ongoing drought and not to internal changes in the volcano.


Background: Mauna Kea was last active about 4,600 years ago. Monitoring is conducted using three seismometers and one GPS receiver on the volcano plus instruments on adjacent Kohala volcano and denser seismic and geodetic networks on the north flank of Mauna Loa to the south.

MAUNA LOA VOLCANO (VNUM #332020)
19°28'30" N 155°36'29" W, Summit Elevation 13681 ft (4170 m)
Current Volcano Alert Level: NORMAL
Current Aviation Color Code: GREEN

No significant deformation was recorded through March, 2014.

Seismicity: 0 shallow events below summit area, 5 events to the west of Mokuʻāweoweo Crater (<13 km), 3 events to the north of Mokuʻāweoweo Crater, 10 shallow events on the Upper Southwest Rift (Sulfur Cone), 1 shallow event on the Lower Southwest Rift, 3 shallow events on the NE Rift Zone.

Deformation: No changes in deformation rates or patterns were detected by the continuously recording GPS and tilt networks on Mauna Loa. Deformation continued to be dominated by southeasterly motion of the south flank.

Gas: Summit monitors have been offline since mid-February.


Background: Re-inflation of Mauna Loa's shallow magma storage reservoirs started immediately following the most recent eruption in 1984, then turned to deflation for almost a decade. In mid-2002, inflation started again, just after a brief swarm of deep long-period (LP) earthquakes. A more intense swarm of several thousand deep Long Period (LP) earthquakes occurred in late 2004, immediately preceding a dramatic increase in inflation rate. Inflation slowed again in 2006, ceased altogether in late 2009, and resumed slowly in late 2010.

Rising gradually to more than 4 km above sea level, Mauna Loa is the largest active volcano on our planet. Its long submarine flanks descend to the sea floor an additional 5 km, and the sea floor in turn is depressed by Mauna Loa's great mass another 8 km. This makes the volcano's summit about 17 km (56,000 ft) above its base! The enormous volcano covers half of the Island of Hawai`i and by itself amounts to about 85 percent of all the other Hawaiian Islands combined.

Mauna Loa is the largest active volcano on Earth and is among Earth's most active volcanoes, having erupted 33 times since its first well-documented historical eruption in 1843. Its most recent eruption was in 1984. Fore more information on Mauna Loa, see the USGS Fact sheet available at http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2012/3104/fs2012-3104.pdf.

askHVO@usgs.gov

The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory is one of five volcano observatories within the U.S. Geological Survey and is responsible for monitoring volcanoes and earthquakes in Hawai`i.



HAWAIIAN VOLCANO OBSERVATORY MONTHLY UPDATE
Sunday, March 9, 2014 7:54 AM HST (Sunday, March 9, 2014 17:54 UTC)


HALEAKALA VOLCANO (VNUM #332060)
20°42'29" N 156°15' W, Summit Elevation 10023 ft (3055 m)
Current Volcano Alert Level: NORMAL
Current Aviation Color Code: GREEN

There were no significant changes during the month of February, 2014. No earthquakes were located beneath the volcano.

Background: The most recent eruption on Haleakala was probably between A.D. 1480 and 1600. Haleakala Volcano is monitored by a continuous GPS instrument and a seismometer located near the southwest edge of the crater. Key sites on Haleakala are resurveyed using GPS receivers every few years to detect any changes in the volcano's shape.

HUALALAI VOLCANO (VNUM #332040)
19°41'31" N 155°52'12" W, Summit Elevation 8278 ft (2523 m)
Current Volcano Alert Level: NORMAL
Current Aviation Color Code: GREEN

No unusual seismicity or deformation was detected during the month of February, 2014. Two shallow earthquakes were located in the vicinity of the summit and northwest rift zone with another four located at depths greater than 13 km.

Background: Hualalai is the third most active volcano on Hawai`i Island and typically erupts 2 to 3 times per 1,000 years. Hualalai last erupted in 1801 and, more recently, had a damaging seismic swarm in 1929 that probably was the result of a shallow intrusion of magma. Hualalai Volcano is monitored by one continuous GPS instrument and a seismometer located southeast of the summit as well as several instruments on nearby flanks of Mauna Loa and Mauna Kea. Key sites on Hualalai and West Mauna Loa are resurveyed using GPS receivers every few years to detect any changes in the volcano's shape.

LO`IHI VOLCANO
18°55'12" N 155°16'12" W, Summit Elevation -3199 ft (-975 m)
Current Volcano Alert Level: UNASSIGNED
Current Aviation Color Code: UNASSIGNED

No unusual seismicity was detected during the month of February, 2014. Six earthquakes were located in the vicinity of Lo`ihi volcano.

Background: Lo`ihi was last active in 1952, when activity probably generated a small local tsunami, and 1996. There are no working instruments on Lo`ihi Volcano whose peak is about 1,000 m below sea level. All real-time information about the volcano is derived from land-based seismometers on Hawai`i Island.

MAUNA KEA VOLCANO (VNUM #332030)
19°49'12" N 155°28'12" W, Summit Elevation 13796 ft (4205 m)
Current Volcano Alert Level: NORMAL
Current Aviation Color Code: GREEN

No unusual deformation or seismicity was detected during the month of February, 2014. Four deep (> 13 km) and six shallower earthquakes were detected beneath the volcano. The shrinkage of Lake Waiau has stalled and the lake is getting larger, probably as a result of recharge from recent winter storms.

Background: Mauna Kea was last active about 4,600 years ago. Monitoring is conducted using three seismometers and one GPS receiver on the volcano plus instruments on adjacent Kohala volcano and denser seismic and geodetic networks on the north flank of Mauna Loa to the south.

MAUNA LOA VOLCANO (VNUM #332020)
19°28'30" N 155°36'29" W, Summit Elevation 13681 ft (4170 m)
Current Volcano Alert Level: NORMAL
Current Aviation Color Code: GREEN

No significant deformation was recorded; seismicity rates were slightly elevated through February, 2014.

Seismicity: Mauna Loa has had higher than normal seismicity in the past few months. Five shallow earthquakes were located below summit area with many more too small to formally review or locate. In addition, there were 13 events to the west of Mauna Loa (<13 km deep), 17 shallow events on the upper southwest rift, 3 shallow events on the lower southwest rift, 3 shallow events on the NE rift zone.

Deformation: No changes in deformation rates or patterns were detected by the continuously recording GPS and tilt networks on Mauna Loa. Deformation continued to be dominated by southeasterly motion of the south flank. There was a discreet episode of about 1 cm of uplift at the two GPS stations nearest to the caldera between February 18 and 19. There does not appear to be any horizontal offset at that time. It's possible that the vertical signal may have been related to heavy snowfall that occurred around that time, though we have not observed such a clear offset from snowfall before.

Gas: No significant changes in SO2, CO2 were recorded by the Mokuaweoweo gas and temperature monitors during February. Fumarole temperature varied between 70 and 73 degrees C during the first half of the month until an equipment failure took the sensors offline; we are working to restore these data.

Background: Re-inflation of Mauna Loa's shallow magma storage reservoirs started immediately following the most recent eruption in 1984, then turned to deflation for almost a decade. In mid-2002, inflation started again, just after a brief swarm of deep long-period (LP) earthquakes. A more intense swarm of several thousand deep Long Period (LP) earthquakes occurred in late 2004, immediately preceding a dramatic increase in inflation rate. Inflation slowed again in 2006, ceased altogether in late 2009, and resumed slowly in late 2010.

Rising gradually to more than 4 km above sea level, Mauna Loa is the largest active volcano on our planet. Its long submarine flanks descend to the sea floor an additional 5 km, and the sea floor in turn is depressed by Mauna Loa's great mass another 8 km. This makes the volcano's summit about 17 km (56,000 ft) above its base! The enormous volcano covers half of the Island of Hawai`i and by itself amounts to about 85 percent of all the other Hawaiian Islands combined.

Mauna Loa is the largest active volcano on Earth and is among Earth's most active volcanoes, having erupted 33 times since its first well-documented historical eruption in 1843. Its most recent eruption was in 1984.

CONTACT INFORMATION:
askHVO@usgs.gov

The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory is one of five volcano observatories within the U.S. Geological Survey and is responsible for monitoring volcanoes and earthquakes in Hawai`i.



HAWAIIAN VOLCANO OBSERVATORY MONTHLY UPDATE
Thursday, February 6, 2014 9:37 AM HST (Thursday, February 6, 2014 19:37 UTC)


HALEAKALA VOLCANO (VNUM #332060)
20°42'29" N 156°15' W, Summit Elevation 10023 ft (3055 m)
Current Volcano Alert Level: NORMAL
Current Aviation Color Code: GREEN

There were no significant changes during the month of January, 2014. No earthquakes were located beneath the volcano.

Background: The most recent eruption on Haleakala was probably between A.D. 1480 and 1600. Haleakala Volcano is monitored by a continuous GPS instrument and a seismometer located near the southwest edge of the crater. Key sites on Haleakala are resurveyed using GPS receivers every few years to detect any changes in the volcano's shape.

HUALALAI VOLCANO (VNUM #332040)
19°41'31" N 155°52'12" W, Summit Elevation 8278 ft (2523 m)
Current Volcano Alert Level: NORMAL
Current Aviation Color Code: GREEN

No unusual seismicity or deformation was detected during the month of January, 2014. One shallow earthquake was located in the vicinity of the summit or northwest rift zone with another three located at depths greater than 13 km.

Background: Hualalai is the third most active volcano on Hawai`i Island and typically erupts 2 to 3 times per 1,000 years. Hualalai last erupted in 1801 and, more recently, had a damaging seismic swarm in 1929 that probably was the result of a shallow intrusion of magma. Hualalai Volcano is monitored by one continuous GPS instrument and a seismometer located southeast of the summit as well as several instruments on nearby flanks of Mauna Loa and Mauna Kea. Key sites on Hualalai and West Mauna Loa are resurveyed using GPS receivers every few years to detect any changes in the volcano's shape.

LO`IHI VOLCANO
18°55'12" N 155°16'12" W, Summit Elevation -3199 ft (-975 m)
Current Volcano Alert Level: UNASSIGNED
Current Aviation Color Code: UNASSIGNED

No unusual seismicity was detected during the month of January, 2014. Four earthquakes were located in the vicinity of Lo`ihi volcano.

Background: Lo`ihi was last active in 1952, when activity probably generated a small local tsunami, and 1996. There are no working instruments on Lo`ihi Volcano whose peak is about 1,000 m below sea level. All real-time information about the volcano is derived from land-based seismometers on Hawai`i Island.

MAUNA KEA VOLCANO (VNUM #332030)
19°49'12" N 155°28'12" W, Summit Elevation 13796 ft (4205 m)
Current Volcano Alert Level: NORMAL
Current Aviation Color Code: GREEN

No unusual deformation or seismicity was detected during the month of January, 2014. Ten deep (> 13 km) and six shallower earthquakes were detected beneath the volcano. The shrinkage of Lake Waiau is most likely the result of climatic changes (such as the ongoing drought) and not the result of a change in Mauna Kea's volcanic state.

Background: Mauna Kea was last active about 4,600 years ago. Monitoring is conducted using three seismometers and one GPS receiver on the volcano plus instruments on adjacent Kohala volcano and denser seismic and geodetic networks on the north flank of Mauna Loa to the south.

MAUNA LOA VOLCANO (VNUM #332020)
19°28'30" N 155°36'29" W, Summit Elevation 13681 ft (4170 m)
Current Volcano Alert Level: NORMAL
Current Aviation Color Code: GREEN

No significant deformation was recorded; seismicity rates were slightly elevated through January, 2014.

Seismicity: Mauna Loa has had higher than normal seismicity in the past few months. Two shallow earthquakes were located below summit area with many more too small to formally review or locate. In addition, there were 3 events to the west of Mauna Loa (<13 km deep), 13 shallow events on the upper southwest rift, 2 shallow events on the lower southwest rift, 6 shallow events on the NE rift zone.

Deformation: There were no changes in deformation rates or patterns on Mauna Loa. There was no significant uplift and deformation continued to be dominated by southeasterly motion of the southeast flank.

Gas: No significant changes in SO2, CO2 were recorded by the Moku`aweoweo gas and temperature monitors during January. Fumarole temperature varied between 70 and 73 degrees C during the month except for brief precipitation-induced decreases on 04, 22-23, and 28 January.

Background: Re-inflation of Mauna Loa's shallow magma storage reservoirs started immediately following the most recent eruption in 1984, then turned to deflation for almost a decade. In mid-2002, inflation started again, just after a brief swarm of deep long-period (LP) earthquakes. A more intense swarm of several thousand deep Long Period (LP) earthquakes occurred in late 2004, immediately preceding a dramatic increase in inflation rate. Inflation slowed again in 2006, ceased altogether in late 2009, and resumed slowly in late 2010.

Rising gradually to more than 4 km above sea level, Mauna Loa is the largest active volcano on our planet. Its long submarine flanks descend to the sea floor an additional 5 km, and the sea floor in turn is depressed by Mauna Loa's great mass another 8 km. This makes the volcano's summit about 17 km (56,000 ft) above its base! The enormous volcano covers half of the Island of Hawai`i and by itself amounts to about 85 percent of all the other Hawaiian Islands combined.

Mauna Loa is the largest active volcano on Earth and is among Earth's most active volcanoes, having erupted 33 times since its first well-documented historical eruption in 1843. Its most recent eruption was in 1984.

CONTACT INFORMATION:
askHVO@usgs.gov

The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory is one of five volcano observatories within the U.S. Geological Survey and is responsible for monitoring volcanoes and earthquakes in Hawai`i.



Update Archive

Older updates can be found using the HVO Alert Archive Search.

New Update Format

For more information about the Volcano Alert Level and Aviation Color Code, please see the U.S. Geological Survey's Alert Notification System for Volcanic Activity Fact Sheet (pdf) or the USGS Volcanic Activity Alert-Notification System web page.