HVO Mauna Loa Status

Recent Mauna Loa Status Reports, Updates, and Information Releases

HAWAIIAN VOLCANO OBSERVATORY MONTHLY UPDATE
Thursday, September 4, 2014 12:06 PM PDT (Thursday, September 4, 2014 19:06 UTC)


MAUNA LOA VOLCANO (VNUM #332020)
19°28'30" N 155°36'29" W, Summit Elevation 13681 ft (4170 m)
Current Volcano Alert Level: NORMAL
Current Aviation Color Code: GREEN

Seismicity continued to be slightly elevated; deformation patterns may suggest renewed inflation.

Monitoring data through the month of August 2014:

Seismicity: Seismicity at Mauna Loa remains elevated in several parts of the volcano. In early August a swarm of Deep (45-50 km) Long Period (DLP) earthquakes occurred under the volcano. It was the most numerous swarm of earthquakes in this region since a swarm of DLP earthquakes and deformation in 2004 and 2005. It is common at Mauna Loa and other volcanoes worldwide to associate deep magma intrusion with the occurrence of DLP earthquakes. Earthquake rates on the Upper Southwest Rift Zone (Sulfur Cone) and West Flank remain elevated, though similar to the past couple of months. Seismicity rates in the Mokuʻāweoweo Crater increased over previous months with at over 20 events in the past month at shallow (<2 km) depths. All earthquakes in the past month have been small relative to earthquake sequences observed before eruptions in 1975 and 1984.

Deformation: GPS data show a broad pattern of horizontal displacements suggesting renewed inflation, with the majority of the volume accumulating in a dike-like body beneath the caldera. InSAR is starting to show the double-lobed pattern typical of dike widening. Reinflation may have started in April or May of this year. Displacement rates in August were a little more than half those measured during the height of the 2002-2009 inflation in 2004-2005.

Gas: Instrumentation was not functional during the month of August.

Background: Re-inflation of Mauna Loa's shallow magma storage reservoirs started immediately following the most recent eruption in 1984, then turned to deflation for almost a decade. In mid-2002, inflation started again, just after a brief swarm of deep long-period (LP) earthquakes. A more intense swarm of several thousand deep Long Period (LP) earthquakes occurred in late 2004, immediately preceding a dramatic increase in inflation rate. Inflation slowed again in 2006, ceased altogether in late 2009, and resumed slowly in late 2010.

Rising gradually to more than 4 km above sea level, Mauna Loa is the largest active volcano on our planet. Its long submarine flanks descend to the sea floor an additional 5 km, and the sea floor in turn is depressed by Mauna Loa's great mass another 8 km. This makes the volcano's summit about 17 km (56,000 ft) above its base! The enormous volcano covers half of the Island of Hawai`i and by itself amounts to about 85 percent of all the other Hawaiian Islands combined.

Mauna Loa is the largest active volcano on Earth and is among Earth's most active volcanoes, having erupted 33 times since its first well-documented historical eruption in 1843. Its most recent eruption was in 1984. For more information on Mauna Loa, see the USGS Fact sheet available at http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2012/3104/fs2012-3104.pdf.

CONTACT INFORMATION:
askHVO@usgs.gov

The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory is one of five volcano observatories within the U.S. Geological Survey and is responsible for monitoring volcanoes and earthquakes in Hawai`i.
HAWAIIAN VOLCANO OBSERVATORY MONTHLY UPDATE
Wednesday, August 6, 2014 7:43 AM PDT (Wednesday, August 6, 2014 14:43 UTC)


MAUNA LOA VOLCANO (VNUM #332020)
19°28'30" N 155°36'29" W, Summit Elevation 13681 ft (4170 m)
Current Volcano Alert Level: NORMAL
Current Aviation Color Code: GREEN

Seismicity continued to be slightly elevated; deformation patterns may suggest renewed inflation.

Monitoring data through the month of July 2014:

Seismicity: Seismicity continued to be elevated over the average rates of the past 25 years-9 shallow events below summit area, 9 events to the west of Mokuʻāweoweo Crater (<13 km), 2 events to the north of Mokuʻāweoweo Crater, 23 shallow events on the Upper Southwest Rift (Sulfur Cone), 0 shallow events on the Lower Southwest Rift, 1 shallow event on the NE Rift Zone, 3 Deep Long Period Events.

Deformation: GPS data show a broad pattern of horizontal displacements suggesting renewed inflation, which may have started in April 2014, with an increase in rate in July. Displacement rates are still low compared to rates just after the 1984 eruption and during the height of the 2002-2009 inflation.

Gas: No significant changes in SO2, CO2 were recorded by the Mokuaweoweo gas and temperature monitors through July 16th, when network links were disrupted by a lightning storm that hit HVO. We're working to restore these links. Daily average fumarole temperature during the month continued to decline to about 73.5 C from 74 C through mid-month, still not back down to the 71.7 degrees average of several months ago.

Background: Re-inflation of Mauna Loa's shallow magma storage reservoirs started immediately following the most recent eruption in 1984, then turned to deflation for almost a decade. In mid-2002, inflation started again, just after a brief swarm of deep long-period (LP) earthquakes. A more intense swarm of several thousand deep Long Period (LP) earthquakes occurred in late 2004, immediately preceding a dramatic increase in inflation rate. Inflation slowed again in 2006, ceased altogether in late 2009, and resumed slowly in late 2010.

Rising gradually to more than 4 km above sea level, Mauna Loa is the largest active volcano on our planet. Its long submarine flanks descend to the sea floor an additional 5 km, and the sea floor in turn is depressed by Mauna Loa's great mass another 8 km. This makes the volcano's summit about 17 km (56,000 ft) above its base! The enormous volcano covers half of the Island of Hawai`i and by itself amounts to about 85 percent of all the other Hawaiian Islands combined.

Mauna Loa is the largest active volcano on Earth and is among Earth's most active volcanoes, having erupted 33 times since its first well-documented historical eruption in 1843. Its most recent eruption was in 1984. For more information on Mauna Loa, see the USGS Fact sheet available at http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2012/3104/fs2012-3104.pdf.

CONTACT INFORMATION:
askHVO@usgs.gov

The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory is one of five volcano observatories within the U.S. Geological Survey and is responsible for monitoring volcanoes and earthquakes in Hawai`i.
HAWAIIAN VOLCANO OBSERVATORY MONTHLY UPDATE
Monday, July 21, 2014 7:30 AM PDT (Monday, July 21, 2014 14:30 UTC)


MAUNA LOA VOLCANO (VNUM #332020)
19°28'30" N 155°36'29" W, Summit Elevation 13681 ft (4170 m)
Current Volcano Alert Level: NORMAL
Current Aviation Color Code: GREEN

No significant changes were recorded through May 2014.

Seismicity: Seismicity continued to be elevated over the average rates of the past 25 years-12 shallow events below summit area, 6 events to the west of Mokuʻāweoweo Crater (<13 km), 5 events to the north of Mokuʻāweoweo Crater, 16 shallow events on the Upper Southwest Rift (Sulfur Cone), 4 shallow events on the Lower Southwest Rift, 2 shallow events on the NE Rift Zone.

Deformation: GPS and tilt networks did not record any changes in deformation rates or patterns that were significantly above the error of the measurements during June. Southeasterly motion of the south flank continued.

Gas: No significant changes in SO2, CO2 were recorded by the Mokuaweoweo gas and temperature monitors in May. Daily average fumarole temperature during the month declined from 76 to 75 degrees C, still not back down though to the 71.7 degrees average of several months ago.


Background: Re-inflation of Mauna Loa's shallow magma storage reservoirs started immediately following the most recent eruption in 1984, then turned to deflation for almost a decade. In mid-2002, inflation started again, just after a brief swarm of deep long-period (LP) earthquakes. A more intense swarm of several thousand deep Long Period (LP) earthquakes occurred in late 2004, immediately preceding a dramatic increase in inflation rate. Inflation slowed again in 2006, ceased altogether in late 2009, and resumed slowly in late 2010.

Rising gradually to more than 4 km above sea level, Mauna Loa is the largest active volcano on our planet. Its long submarine flanks descend to the sea floor an additional 5 km, and the sea floor in turn is depressed by Mauna Loa's great mass another 8 km. This makes the volcano's summit about 17 km (56,000 ft) above its base! The enormous volcano covers half of the Island of Hawai`i and by itself amounts to about 85 percent of all the other Hawaiian Islands combined.

Mauna Loa is the largest active volcano on Earth and is among Earth's most active volcanoes, having erupted 33 times since its first well-documented historical eruption in 1843. Its most recent eruption was in 1984. For more information on Mauna Loa, see the USGS Fact sheet available at http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2012/3104/fs2012-3104.pdf.

CONTACT INFORMATION:
askHVO@usgs.gov

The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory is one of five volcano observatories within the U.S. Geological Survey and is responsible for monitoring volcanoes and earthquakes in Hawai`i.
HAWAIIAN VOLCANO OBSERVATORY MONTHLY UPDATE
Sunday, June 8, 2014 8:14 AM PDT (Sunday, June 8, 2014 15:14 UTC)


MAUNA LOA VOLCANO (VNUM #332020)
19°28'30" N 155°36'29" W, Summit Elevation 13681 ft (4170 m)
Current Volcano Alert Level: NORMAL
Current Aviation Color Code: GREEN

No significant changes were recorded through May 2014.

Seismicity: Seismicity continued to be elevated over the average rates of the past 25 years-12 shallow events below summit area, 7 events to the west of Moku`āweoweo Crater (<13 km), 5 events to the north of Moku`āweoweo Crater, 17 shallow events on the Upper Southwest Rift (Sulfur Cone), 2 shallow events on the Lower Southwest Rift, 2 shallow events on the NE Rift Zone.

Deformation: GPS and tilt networks did not record any changes in deformation rates or patterns that were significantly above the error of the measurements during May. Southeasterly motion of the south flank continued.

Gas: No significant changes in SO2, CO2 were recorded by the Mokuaweoweo gas and temperature monitors in May. Daily average fumarole temperature during the month declined from 76 to 75 degrees C, still not back down though to the 71.7 degrees average of several months ago.


Background: Re-inflation of Mauna Loa's shallow magma storage reservoirs started immediately following the most recent eruption in 1984, then turned to deflation for almost a decade. In mid-2002, inflation started again, just after a brief swarm of deep long-period (LP) earthquakes. A more intense swarm of several thousand deep Long Period (LP) earthquakes occurred in late 2004, immediately preceding a dramatic increase in inflation rate. Inflation slowed again in 2006, ceased altogether in late 2009, and resumed slowly in late 2010.

Rising gradually to more than 4 km above sea level, Mauna Loa is the largest active volcano on our planet. Its long submarine flanks descend to the sea floor an additional 5 km, and the sea floor in turn is depressed by Mauna Loa's great mass another 8 km. This makes the volcano's summit about 17 km (56,000 ft) above its base! The enormous volcano covers half of the Island of Hawai`i and by itself amounts to about 85 percent of all the other Hawaiian Islands combined.

Mauna Loa is the largest active volcano on Earth and is among Earth's most active volcanoes, having erupted 33 times since its first well-documented historical eruption in 1843. Its most recent eruption was in 1984. Fore more information on Mauna Loa, see the USGS Fact sheet available at http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2012/3104/fs2012-3104.pdf.

CONTACT INFORMATION:
askHVO@usgs.gov

The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory is one of five volcano observatories within the U.S. Geological Survey and is responsible for monitoring volcanoes and earthquakes in Hawai`i.
HAWAIIAN VOLCANO OBSERVATORY MONTHLY UPDATE
Wednesday, May 7, 2014 2:42 PM PDT (Wednesday, May 7, 2014 21:42 UTC)


MAUNA LOA VOLCANO (VNUM #332020)
19°28'30" N 155°36'29" W, Summit Elevation 13681 ft (4170 m)
Current Volcano Alert Level: NORMAL
Current Aviation Color Code: GREEN

No significant changes were recorded through April, 2014.

Seismicity: Seismicity continued to be elevated. 34 shallow (0 to 5 km deep) events below summit area; 56 intermediate (5 to 13 km deep) , 4 events deeper than 13 km. Shallow events are broadly distributed beneath summit and upper southwest rift zone. Intermediate depth events cluster ~10 km W of summit, in source region associated with precursory seismicity to both 1975 and 1984 eruptions. 6 shallow events beneath the NE Rift Zone and SE (Kaoiki) flank.

Deformation: No changes in deformation rates or patterns were detected by the continuously recording GPS and tilt networks on Mauna Loa. Deformation continued to be dominated by southeasterly motion of the south flank.

Gas: No significant changes in SO2, CO2 were recorded by the Mokuaweoweo gas and temperature monitors following resolution of the connectivity issue at mid-month. Fumarole temperature during the 2-month data hiatus, however, increased from 71.7 to 77.1 degrees but declined near the end of the month to 76 degrees.


Background: Re-inflation of Mauna Loa's shallow magma storage reservoirs started immediately following the most recent eruption in 1984, then turned to deflation for almost a decade. In mid-2002, inflation started again, just after a brief swarm of deep long-period (LP) earthquakes. A more intense swarm of several thousand deep Long Period (LP) earthquakes occurred in late 2004, immediately preceding a dramatic increase in inflation rate. Inflation slowed again in 2006, ceased altogether in late 2009, and resumed slowly in late 2010.

Rising gradually to more than 4 km above sea level, Mauna Loa is the largest active volcano on our planet. Its long submarine flanks descend to the sea floor an additional 5 km, and the sea floor in turn is depressed by Mauna Loa's great mass another 8 km. This makes the volcano's summit about 17 km (56,000 ft) above its base! The enormous volcano covers half of the Island of Hawai`i and by itself amounts to about 85 percent of all the other Hawaiian Islands combined.

Mauna Loa is the largest active volcano on Earth and is among Earth's most active volcanoes, having erupted 33 times since its first well-documented historical eruption in 1843. Its most recent eruption was in 1984. Fore more information on Mauna Loa, see the USGS Fact sheet available at http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2012/3104/fs2012-3104.pdf.

CONTACT INFORMATION:
askHVO@usgs.gov

The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory is one of five volcano observatories within the U.S. Geological Survey and is responsible for monitoring volcanoes and earthquakes in Hawai`i.
HAWAIIAN VOLCANO OBSERVATORY MONTHLY UPDATE
Wednesday, April 9, 2014 7:54 AM PDT (Wednesday, April 9, 2014 14:54 UTC)


MAUNA LOA VOLCANO (VNUM #332020)
19°28'30" N 155°36'29" W, Summit Elevation 13681 ft (4170 m)
Current Volcano Alert Level: NORMAL
Current Aviation Color Code: GREEN

No significant deformation was recorded through March, 2014.

Seismicity: 0 shallow events below summit area, 5 events to the west of Mokuʻāweoweo Crater (<13 km), 3 events to the north of Mokuʻāweoweo Crater, 10 shallow events on the Upper Southwest Rift (Sulfur Cone), 1 shallow event on the Lower Southwest Rift, 3 shallow events on the NE Rift Zone.

Deformation: No changes in deformation rates or patterns were detected by the continuously recording GPS and tilt networks on Mauna Loa. Deformation continued to be dominated by southeasterly motion of the south flank.

Gas: Summit monitors have been offline since mid-February.


Background: Re-inflation of Mauna Loa's shallow magma storage reservoirs started immediately following the most recent eruption in 1984, then turned to deflation for almost a decade. In mid-2002, inflation started again, just after a brief swarm of deep long-period (LP) earthquakes. A more intense swarm of several thousand deep Long Period (LP) earthquakes occurred in late 2004, immediately preceding a dramatic increase in inflation rate. Inflation slowed again in 2006, ceased altogether in late 2009, and resumed slowly in late 2010.

Rising gradually to more than 4 km above sea level, Mauna Loa is the largest active volcano on our planet. Its long submarine flanks descend to the sea floor an additional 5 km, and the sea floor in turn is depressed by Mauna Loa's great mass another 8 km. This makes the volcano's summit about 17 km (56,000 ft) above its base! The enormous volcano covers half of the Island of Hawai`i and by itself amounts to about 85 percent of all the other Hawaiian Islands combined.

Mauna Loa is the largest active volcano on Earth and is among Earth's most active volcanoes, having erupted 33 times since its first well-documented historical eruption in 1843. Its most recent eruption was in 1984. Fore more information on Mauna Loa, see the USGS Fact sheet available at http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2012/3104/fs2012-3104.pdf.

CONTACT INFORMATION:
askHVO@usgs.gov

The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory is one of five volcano observatories within the U.S. Geological Survey and is responsible for monitoring volcanoes and earthquakes in Hawai`i.
HAWAIIAN VOLCANO OBSERVATORY MONTHLY UPDATE
Sunday, March 9, 2014 7:54 AM PDT (Sunday, March 9, 2014 14:54 UTC)


MAUNA LOA VOLCANO (VNUM #332020)
19°28'30" N 155°36'29" W, Summit Elevation 13681 ft (4170 m)
Current Volcano Alert Level: NORMAL
Current Aviation Color Code: GREEN

No significant deformation was recorded; seismicity rates were slightly elevated through February, 2014.

Seismicity: Mauna Loa has had higher than normal seismicity in the past few months. Five shallow earthquakes were located below summit area with many more too small to formally review or locate. In addition, there were 13 events to the west of Mauna Loa (<13 km deep), 17 shallow events on the upper southwest rift, 3 shallow events on the lower southwest rift, 3 shallow events on the NE rift zone.

Deformation: No changes in deformation rates or patterns were detected by the continuously recording GPS and tilt networks on Mauna Loa. Deformation continued to be dominated by southeasterly motion of the south flank. There was a discreet episode of about 1 cm of uplift at the two GPS stations nearest to the caldera between February 18 and 19. There does not appear to be any horizontal offset at that time. It's possible that the vertical signal may have been related to heavy snowfall that occurred around that time, though we have not observed such a clear offset from snowfall before.

Gas: No significant changes in SO2, CO2 were recorded by the Mokuaweoweo gas and temperature monitors during February. Fumarole temperature varied between 70 and 73 degrees C during the first half of the month until an equipment failure took the sensors offline; we are working to restore these data.


Background: Re-inflation of Mauna Loa's shallow magma storage reservoirs started immediately following the most recent eruption in 1984, then turned to deflation for almost a decade. In mid-2002, inflation started again, just after a brief swarm of deep long-period (LP) earthquakes. A more intense swarm of several thousand deep Long Period (LP) earthquakes occurred in late 2004, immediately preceding a dramatic increase in inflation rate. Inflation slowed again in 2006, ceased altogether in late 2009, and resumed slowly in late 2010.

Rising gradually to more than 4 km above sea level, Mauna Loa is the largest active volcano on our planet. Its long submarine flanks descend to the sea floor an additional 5 km, and the sea floor in turn is depressed by Mauna Loa's great mass another 8 km. This makes the volcano's summit about 17 km (56,000 ft) above its base! The enormous volcano covers half of the Island of Hawai`i and by itself amounts to about 85 percent of all the other Hawaiian Islands combined.

Mauna Loa is the largest active volcano on Earth and is among Earth's most active volcanoes, having erupted 33 times since its first well-documented historical eruption in 1843. Its most recent eruption was in 1984.

CONTACT INFORMATION:
askHVO@usgs.gov

The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory is one of five volcano observatories within the U.S. Geological Survey and is responsible for monitoring volcanoes and earthquakes in Hawai`i.

Update Archive

Older updates can be found using the HVO Alert Archive Search.

New Update Format

For more information about the Volcano Alert Level and Aviation Color Code, please see the U.S. Geological Survey's Alert Notification System for Volcanic Activity Fact Sheet (pdf) or the USGS Volcanic Activity Alert-Notification System web page.