View is from the northwest caldera rim atop Uwekahuna Bluff toward the south-southwest. Halema`uma`u is in upper left.
Deep cracks and fractures near the caldera rim (foreground) are evidence of the instability of the caldera walls as a consequence of the formation of the caldera. Many such cracks occur within 10-20 m of the rim, and several recent magnitude 6+ earthquakes have shaken loose sections of the caldera walls. On a larger scale of collapse, the stairstep pattern of the caldera wall (middle distance) represents large blocks that subsided during formation of the caldera. See image #6 for other large blocks of the caldera wall that collapsed during and after the caldera formed.