USGS
Hawaiian Volcano 
Observatory

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Spatter cones and rampart erupted in April 1982
Photograph by S.R. Brantley on August 17, 1998

View from the northeast edge of Halema`uma`u toward the northeast. A short-lived fissure eruption built this spatter rampart on April 30-May 1, 1982. Three other brief fissure eruptions occurred in this area in May-June 1954, September 1971, and November 1975.

Spatter ramparts are long, narrow ridges of spatter that accumulate along either side of an erupting fissure. The spatter "sticks together" or agglutinates when it lands and is buried by later spatter. If a fissure narrows to a single vent along the original fissure, the spatter may build a taller conical spatter cone, or spatter and cinder cone with a circular base (for example, see growth of Pu`u `O`o on Kilauea's east rift zone).

The light material in foreground consists of minerals formed by reaction of acidic volcanic gas with glass in the spatter and adjacent lava flow.

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Updated: 15 September 1998