USGS
Hawaiian Volcano Observatory

Magma budget for Kilauea Volcano's summit reservoir during Kilauea Iki eruption,
November 14 - December 20, 1959

Illustration: summary of magma budget, Kilauea Volcano

Illustration by J. Johnson (data from Eaton et. al., 1987)
   

This simplified illustration shows the volume of magma that (1) erupted into and drained back from Kilauea Iki Crater; (2) rose into the summit reservoir from depth; and (3) probably intruded into the upper east rift zone of Kilauea Volcano during the 1959 summit eruption. Note that the illustrations are not to scale; M=million.

Top left: Magma reservoir before the summit eruption began.

Top right: By the end of episode 1, a net 30 million m3 of magma had been withdrawn from the summit reservoir and emplaced into Kilauea Iki Crater.

Bottom left: During episodes 2-17, magma rose into the summit reservoir from depth, erupted into and drained back from Kilauea Iki Crater (leaving only a net 8 million m3 of lava in the lava lake), and probably intruded into the upper east rift zone of Kilauea Volcano.

Bottom right: By the time the eruption ended, the summit reservoir had gained a net 10 million m3 of magma.

   

Back to Eruption of Kilauea Iki Crater


Reference

Eaton, J.P., Richter, D.H., and Krivoy, H.L., 1987, Cycling of magma between the summit reservoir and Kilauea Iki lava lake during the 1959 eruption of Kilauea Volcano, in Decker, R.W., Wright, T.L., Stauffer, P.W., (eds.), Volcanism in Hawaii: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1350, v. 2, p. 1307-1335.


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Updated: 24 November 1999