Table source and notes
|Eruptive Subdivision||Area Covered
|1983||Jan-3||>9,130 (s)(v)||ER (u)||119.4||3.3|
|1973||May-5||<1||ER (x)||0.3||0.0012 (y)|
|1972||Feb-3||900 (s)||ER (t)||46||0.162|
|1971||Sep-24||5||C, SWR||3.9||0.0077 (w)|
|1969||May-24||874 (s)||ER (t)||50||0.185|
|1968||Aug-22||5||ER (o)||0.1||0.00013 (p)|
|1924 (g)||May-10||17||C||No lava||No lava|
|1919||Feb-7||294 (f)||C||4.2||0.0252 ?|
|1832||Jan-14||Short||east rim of C||?||?|
|1823||Feb-Jul||Short||SWR||10.0 (d)||0.0110 (d)|
|Nearly continuous lava-lake activity on the caldera floor characterized the period from before 1823 until 1924. (a)|
|1790 (c)||Nov ?||-||C||No lava flow||No lava flow|
Notes about the table
Eruptive Subdivisions of Kilauea Volcano
(a) Written records begin in July-August 1823, when the first European visited the summit of Kilauea. Thereafter until 1924, lava-lake eruptive activity was almost continuous in the caldera. Before the mid-1800s, however, records of the many overflows from the lava lake are sparse. The table lists the periods of major overflows only.
(b) Since 1960 all areas and volumes are based on mapping and estimates by the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory.
(c) Violently explosive, killing 80 or more members of a war party near the summit or upper southwest rift zone.
(d) Area above sea level. The volume below sea level is unknown, but estimates give the following orders of magnitude: 1823-2,200,000 m3; 1840-146,000,000 m3. These are included in the volumes given in the table.
(e) Pacific Commercial Advertiser, Feb. 2, 1884. "A column of water, like a dome, shot several hundred feet up into the air, accompanied with clouds of smoke and steam." No further eruption was observed the next day.
(f) Several separate flows, with short intervals without extrusion.
(g) Violent phreatic explosions, possibly accompanied by a submarine lava flow on the east rift zone. One person killed by falling rocks.
(h) About 230,000 m3 of lava poured into Halema`uma`u, but most of it drained back into the vents.
(i) Fourteen outbreaks along a 21-km discontinuous fissure east of Napau Crater.
(j) Five outbreaks from `Alo`i Crater to Kane Nui o Hamo.
(k) In and near `Alae Crater.
(l) In and near Napau Crater.
(m) Makaopuhi Crater to Kalalua Crater.
(n) In and east of `Alo`i Crater.
(o) In Hi`iaka Crater and at scattered points for 21 km farther east.
(p) About 2,900,000 m3 poured into Hi`iaka Crater, but most of it drained back in the feeding fissure at the end of the eruption.
(q) From the east flank of Kane Nui o Hamo for about 3 km eastward.
(r) Between `Alae and Napau Craters.
(s) The very long duration of activity is more comparable with the long-continued lava-lake activity in Halema`uma`u previous to 1924 than with the other eruptions listed in this table.
(t) Mauna Ulu, between the former `Alo`i and `Alae Craters, which were completely filled by the lava flows in 1969-70.
(u) Eruption at Pu`u `O`o and Kupaianaha.
(v) Activity in the Pu`u `O`o-Kupaianaha area is continuing.
(w) The volume is only approximate, because of the difficulty in estimating the large amount that poured into open cracks.
(x) From 1 km west of Hi`iaka Crater to Pauahi Crater.
(y) Of this, about 220,000 m3 drained down into fissures in the floors of the craters.
(z) From Pauahi Crater eastward 2.4 km to near Pu`u Huluhulu.
(aa) Of this, about 4,400,000 m3 drained down into cracks in the floor of Halema`uma`u.
(bb) Directly following a M 7.2 earthquake, the most severe since 1868.