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Kilauea

28 November 2000

Tube flows continue down the Paluma pali, Kilauea Volcano, Hawai`i
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Pulama pali continues to fume as tube-fed lava travels below the surface on the way to the active ocean entry.

The skylight at the 270-foot elevation is dark. The lava stream is blocked and cannot be seen from here.

The 270-foot elevation level skylight is inactive, Kilauea Volcano, Hawai`i
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The 250-foot elevation skylight remains incadescent despite crusting, Kilauea Volcano, Hawai`i
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Small cracks show visible lava downtube of the skylights, Kilauea Volcano, Hawai`i
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Sulfur deposites coat the hard surface, while lava continues to flow, Kilauea Volcano, Hawai`i
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Above Left: Tube walls in the skylight at the 250-foot elevation are incandescent, but crust has formed over most of the lava, dimming its brightness. Above Right: Cracks along the tube system below the 250-foot skylight reveal incandescence.
Left: Cracks along the tube system below the 250-foot skylight display sulfur deposits on the surface and incandescent lava beneath.

30 November 2000

Santa and Surface Flows 11:00 am

Morning views of a surface flow below the Paluma pali, Kilauea Volcano, Hawai`i
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One breakout is visible on the coastal plain just below the base of Pulama pali. A vigorous pahoehoe flow fans out toward the east, covering a pre-September `a`a flow.

During today's overflight a curious sleigh was seen on the flow field. Upon landing, our scientific research team discovered that Santa Claus and Merry Christmas were vacationing on the Big Island, fed up with the endless joking of elves. The team's interview and photos bring two new findings to light. First, Santa Claus is Hawaiian. Second, he doesn't laugh all the time. The latter is understandable, considering the rock hammer that Ms. Christmas was wielding.

Santa and Ms. Christmas at the surface flows, Kilauea Volcano, Hawai`i
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The active surface flow below Pulama pali, Kilauea Volcano, Hawai`i
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The active surface flow below Pulama pali, Kilauea Volcano, Hawai`i
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Left: The surface flow spreads at the base of Pulama pali. Right: Pahoehoe topples over itself, turning solid parts upright.
Close up of the active surface flow below Pulama pali, Kilauea Volcano, Hawai`i
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Close up of the active surface flow below Pulama pali, Kilauea Volcano, Hawai`i
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Left: Small toes covers lava that is still cooling. Right: Budding lava toes form at the flow margins.

Surface Flows 5:30 pm

The cooled surface flow below Pulama pali, Kilauea Volcano, Hawai`i
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Close up of the cooled surface flow below Pulama pali, Kilauea Volcano, Hawai`i
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Left: The flow stagnated by early evening, 280 m southeast of the 250-foot elevation skylight, at about the 180-foot elevation. It is 2.4 km from the coast and covers 3.9 ha. In most places the breakout is about 1 m thick.
Right: By early evening no budding lava toes were visible anywhere. The flow ponded against topographic obstructions along most of its margin. This may have added to the fairly abrupt change in status from active to completely inactive.

Coast and Cone

The Kamokuna ocean entry, Kilauea Volcano, Hawai`i
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Close up of the Kamokuna ocean entry, Kilauea Volcano, Hawai`i
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Pu`u `O`o cone, Kilauea Volcano, Hawai`i
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Above Left: The Kamokuna ocean entry has a relatively large steam plume, mainly coming from closely spaced entry points at the center of the bench. Another smaller, isolated plume is at the eastern part of the bench.
Above Right: Two prominent lava-entry points are on the bench. One is indicated by visible lava near the eastern edge.
Left: The visibility around the crater of Pu`u `O`o is better than usual. 

Map of flows from Pu`u `O`o to the ocean; September 2000

Map of lava flows on south coastal part of Kilauea Volcano as of September 2000

Large map. Map shows lava flows (red) active in September 2000 above and on Pulama pali and on the coastal plain, as well as flows erupted earlier from Pu`u `O`o and Kupaianaha. The eastern part of the active flow field (orange) extended to the Royal Gardens private access road on January 11 and entered the sea near Waha`ula on February 3-14, 2000. That flow stopped in  mid-August. A new flow (red) descended  Pulama pali and crossed the coastal plain in September, and lava is now entering the sea at Kamokuna, an area about 1.5 km west-southwest of Waha`ula. 


Eruption-viewing opportunities change constantly, so those readers planning a visit to the volcano should contact Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park for the most current eruption information (tel. 808-985-6000).


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Updated: 6 December 2000 (JA)