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Kilauea

6 December 2002

Lava inland of Highcastle

Wrinkled toe of moving lava in east arm of Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Lonely toe in Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Surface of lava just after breakout from under crust. Note already wrinkled incipient crust. Width of view, 70 cm. 0558. Right. Small toe, about 50 cm across, oozing forward. 0600.
Family of moving lava toes in east arm of Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Gushing lava in Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Family of active toes, one a bit stand-offish, at leading edge of flow tongue 150 m from sea cliff near Highcastle. Cluster of three toes is about 1.5 m across. 0601. Right. Gush of lava from beneath uplifted crust (top of image) pouring downslope. Width of view, about 3 m. 0609.
Advancing lava tongue in Mother's Day flow, with West Highcastle in background, Kilauea volcano, Hawai`i
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Narrow stream of lava just back from front of tongue 150 m from top of sea cliff. Laze plume from entries at West Highcastle lava delta in background. 0619.

9 December 2002

Oozing toes

Wrinkled crust on toe in east arm of Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Lava oozes from under crust, itself crusts, and feeds another toe, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Lava oozes from under crust, slops to ground, slows, and wrinkles at front of arm only 20 m from sea. Width of view, 1.5 m. 0600. Right. Lava emerges from under crust (top), oozes downward, developing crust in process. Crust then breaks (lower part of image), releasing its contents as small toe. Width of view, 1.5 m. 0604.

12 December 2002

East arm flows form new ocean entry

Lava from east arm of Mother's Day flow spills over sea cliff, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Lava starts to build new bench, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Lava from east arm of Mother's Day flow spills over sea cliff west of old Lae`apuki delta and east of recent Highcastle bench. Right. Pahoehoe toes start to build new bench below sea cliff.

13 December 2002

Mother's Day flow still active

Aerial view of Pu`u `O`o cone, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Aerial view of active lava entries, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Volcanic gases escape from vents on the crater floor and west gap of Pu`u `O`o; view is toward southwest. Crater is about 400 m long, and crater floor is about 13 m below lowest part of rim. Right. From west to east (left to right), laze plumes mark where lava enters sea at Wilipe`a (small plume) and West Highcastle (large plume) deltas, and between Highcastle and recent Lae`apuki delta (far right).

West margin of Mother's Day flow at 2200 ft., Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i

Aerial view of active west margin of Mother's Day flow at about 2200-foot elevation (center); Pu`u `O`o cone is hidden by fume (upper right). Spreading from new breakout, flows have expanded west margin by about 500 m.

15 December 2002

New lava delta between Highcastle and Lae`apuki

Entries off front of new lava delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Setting of new lava delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Four streams of lava pour into water at front of new, growing lava delta in bay between Highcastle and Lae`apuki. Another stream flows onto surface of delta from old sea cliff behind. 0609. Right. Setting of new lava delta. Image taken from same place as one to left. Lae`apuki lava delta of 1995 in background. 0620.
Delta takes form as dawn comes on, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
New lava delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Shape of delta becomes more evident as dawn comes. Note black sand beach this side of delta. In large view, note narrow stream of lava falling over sea cliff, partly hidden by right side of steam. 0621. Right. Wider view of delta. 0621.

16 December 2002

Early morning at the deltas

Lava pouring down sea cliff onto two new deltas, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Lava trickling down sea cliff onto old delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Cascades of lava onto two small new deltas near the former site of West Lae`apuki. Nearest cascade feeds delta hidden from view, but farther two cascades supply delta that extends a few meters out from base of cliff. Height of cliff, about 12 m. 0619. Right. Dregs of lava cascade down pre1995 sea cliff onto 1995 Lae`apuki delta. From here, lava ultimately spills into water. Height of cliff, 8 m. 0625.
Active new lava delta between Highcastle and Lae`apuki, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Active new lava delta between Highcastle and Lae`apuki, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Larger of two new lava deltas forming off 1995 Lae`apuki delta. Looking toward Highcastle. Delta is 5-8 m wide, and cliff is 12 m high. 0546. Right. Closer view of delta in left image. 0547.

Part of lava stream flowing from base of cliff onto new delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i

Streams of lava at base of former sea cliff start moving onto surface of new delta between Highcastle and Lae`apuki. Note developing crust and its wrinkles. Width of view, about 5 m. 0613.

17 December 2002

Lava and water between Highcastle and Lae`apuki

Wave swash lighted by lava, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Lava reflection in water, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Lava cascades onto small new delta, moves across delta under crust, and empties into water at several small points. Glow from entries lights wave swash on growing black sand beach ahead of delta. 0536. Right. Lava pours off front of largest new delta and is reflected by water. 0546.

18 December 2002

Activity continues between Highcastle and Lae`apuki

Lava flows out of tube into top of cascade above sea cliff, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Close-up of lava flowing from tube, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Lava emerges from beneath crust--literally a tube--and starts to move down steep slope before plunging down sea cliff above small delta between Highcastle and Lae`apuki. Width of view, 2-3 m. 0611. Right. Close-up of lava in center of left image. Note drawn-out filaments of incipient crust and bubble walls. Width of view, 0.5 m. 0610.
Lower part of lava cascade, just before it falls over sea cliff, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Lava entering water at largest delta between Highcastle and Lae`apuki, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Same cascade as shown above, but 3 m downstream at top of sea cliff. Lava disappears over cliff in lower right. Width of view, 3-4 m. 0616. Right. Lava pours off front of largest new delta just northwest of previous three images. Height of lava falls, about 3 m. 0558.
New delta between Highcastle and Lae`apuki, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
New delta between Highcastle and Lae`apuki, with glow from West Highcastle in distance, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Looking southeast across largest new lava delta between Highcastle (camera site) and Lae`apuki. Cascade down sea cliff feeds small delta, same one as in left image above. Largest delta extends about 20 m beyond old shoreline. 0630. Right. Largest new delta in foreground, and glow from West Highcastle in background. 0612.

Maps of lava-flow field, Kilauea Volcano

Map of flows from Pu`u `O`o: 25 November 2002

Map of lava flows on south coastal part of Kilauea Volcano as of 25 November 2002

Map shows lava flows erupted during the 1983-present activity of Pu`u `O`o and Kupaianaha (see large map). Lava from the Mother's Day flow (red flow on west side of flow field) reached the sea at West Highcastle early on July 19, at Wilipe`a early on July 21, and at Highcastle on August 8. From near the southwest base of Pu`u `O`o, the Mother's Day flow passes along the west side of the flow field and into the forest, where it started a large wildfire in May that continued into late July. By June 10, the Mother's Day flow had reached the base of Paliuli, the steep slope and cliff below Pulama pali and just above the coastal flat. At the base of Paliuli, the Mother's Day flow abruptly spread laterally in a series of small budding flows to cover an area nearly 2 km wide, gradually moving seaward until the West Highcastle and Wilipe`a lobes finally reached the ocean and started building benches. Activity at West Highcastle ended in early August, but entry began soon thereafter at Highcastle, eventually burying tiny kipuka of the Chain of Craters Road. The Wilipe`a entry died away slowly and had ended by mid-August. Highcastle and neighboring Highcastle Stairs entries ended on about August 23. For a time there were no active entries. Then Wilipe`a was reactivated on September 3 and remains active as of November 25. West Highcastle likewise renewed its activity on September 16-17, died away during the night of September 18-19, and returned soon thereafter to continue to time of mapping. East arm of Mother's Day flow branched from Highcastle lobe in late October and sent three fingers into ocean at Highcastle on November 15, West Lae`apuki on November 19, and Lae`apuki on November 20. Of these, only Lae`apuki (the eastern of the two entries labeled "Lae`apuki" on map) was still active on November 25, but it had stopped by November 29.

 


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Updated: 24 December 2002 (DAS)