USGS
Hawaiian Volcano Observatory

Kilauea
Eruption
Summary

Hazards
History

Mauna Loa

Earthquakes

Other Volcanoes

Volcanic Hazards

About HVO

Kilauea
Kilauea

Eruption Update and Image Archive

| deformation | images | video | maps |

19 July 2002

Mother's Day meets Pacific Ocean

Aerial view of Mother's Day flow headed for West Highcastle, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Aerial view looking onshore across West Highcastle ocean entry, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
| med | large |
Left. Looking west across Highcastle area. East and west arms of southeast lobe of Mother's Day flow are lighter than older surrounding flows. East arm has made it to ocean at West Highcastle entry. West arm has advanced just beyond old sea cliff buried by 1995 flows (dark) but has not yet reached ocean. Photo taken at 0809. Highcastle kipuka, with remnant of Chain of Craters Road, in lower part of image. Current end of road is near top of image. Right. Aerial view looking across new entry at West Highcastle. Small cascade from east arm is tumbling into sea (barely visible in large view); west arm still has 60 m to go. Old sea cliff, buried by 1995 flows, visible just inland from entry. White specks west of west arm are park signs.

20 July 2002

Active on the west, ocean entry puny

Aerial view on July 19 of new lobe along west side of flow field, Kilauea volcano, Hawai`i
| med | large |

This view, looking inland at 0810 on July 19, shows active arm of flow (light, in left-central part of image) along west edge of June (mainly) flow, reaching seaward from Paliuli. Active arm, bordered on west by burn, is still 350-400 m behind seaward tip of June flow, which is out of view to left. By 0500 today, tip of active arm  was 50 m beyond June flow and rapidly advancing, as images below show.

Lava toe and bordering fire, Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Small `ohi`a set aflame by lava, Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
| med | large |
West lobe of Mother's Day flow is charging toward Chain of Craters Road at 0622 on a beautiful Saturday morning. These views, only 400 m from road, show a toe spreading against a small `ohi`a tree, setting it aflame. Toe is 1-2 m wide.
Gnarled `ohi`a oversees demise of a youngster, Kilauea volcano, Hawai`i
| med | large |

Small `ohi`a is still burning, but larger, leaning `ohi`a remains nearly intact. Actually, lowest limb on large tree was bursting into brief moments of flame, too. Clearly the flow has to inflate only a little before the old-timer is no more.
 

Small bench at foot of seacliff, West Highcastle entry site, Kilauea volcano, Hawai`i
| med | large |

Looking west along sea cliff at new ocean-entry site of West Highcastle. Small bench is under construction at foot of cliff, barely more than coating boulders. Steam hides two areas of surface lava fed by crusted cascades down cliff. 0655. Perspective is similar to that in third image below.

Lava in Mother's Day flow falls over sea cliff at 0518, Kilauea volcano, Hawai`i
| med | large |

Lava of the Mother's Day flow falls down sea cliff onto boulders below at 0518, little more than 3 hours after ocean entry began 500-600 m east-northeast of the end of Chain of Craters Road. Mist creates halo around incandescent falls. Height of sea cliff, 10-12 m.
 

Lava on brink of sea cliff, Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai`i
| med | large |

Two cascades are active on sea cliff. This one, the eastern, pours over brink of cliff at 0545. Reflection of incandescence comes from part of cliff.
 

Looking west at eastern cascade in Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Looking east at western cascade in Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
| med | large |
Left. Looking west and down at eastern cascade at 0559. Main cascade is in background. New breakout to right has just lifted up crust and is starting to pour down cliff. Flow on rocks below cliff visible in lower left. Right. 0611. Looking east at western cascade, consisting to two falls or trickles, larger of which is spreading across boulders along shoreline.
Lava in Mother's Day flow spreading across boulders at base of sea cliff, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Lava in Mother's Day flow oozing between beach boulders, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
| med | large |
Left. Lava stream spreads across beach boulders from base of eastern cascade at 0544. View looks down onto stream, cooling quickly as it is doused with steam. Right. Lava fed by eastern cascade wends its way between large boulders in surf zone at base of cliff, 0546. Note crashing surf in upper right and left.

21 July 2002

Two ocean entries and a toasted  road

Looking east at West Highcastle ocean entry, Kilauea volcano, Hawai`i
| med | large |

West Highcastle ocean entry, viewed from west at 0526. Lava cascades down sea cliff and moves across bench, which has greatly enlarged seaward in past two days. Lava then pours off front of bench into water. Sea cliff is 8-10 m high.

Lava advances near sea cliff at Wilipe`a, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Lava flowing down sea cliff and onto bench, Wilipe`a entry, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
| med | large |
Wilipe`a ocean entry, new this morning. Left. Lava moves across 1995 flow toward Wilipe`a sea cliff at 0541. In background is cascade of lava down the pre-1995 sea cliff. Flows in 1995 built coast outward from the old cliff. Right. Lava drips and cascades down sea cliff of Wilipe`a ocean entry. 0508. Lava then flows down infant bench developing as fan grows seaward from base of cliff.
Lava at Wilipe`a ocean entry, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Lava at Wilipe`a ocean entry, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
| med | large |
Left. Similar view to that on right above, but at 0546, showing how entry can change appearance is only half an hour. Right. Lava drips and cascades down sea cliff of Wilipe`a ocean entry. 0609. One hour after right image above, showing development of fan and bench.
Lava near leading edge of Wilipe`a bench, Kilauea volcano, Hawai`i
| med | large |

Lava at pouring into water at leading edge of Wilipe`a bench. 0616. Waves crash onto the lava, causing it to form crust that insulates the lava and allows it to slowly, two steps forward and one back, to build bench outward.

Developing Wilipe`a entries from west, Kilauea volcano, Hawai`i
| med | large |

An addendum to the above. This image, looking west at 0939, shows new lava falls at Wilipe`a added since the above images were taken. New arms of the Wilipe`a lobe reach the sea cliff and have nowhere else to go but down.

Lava covering asphalt turnaround on Chain of Craters Road, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Lava distilling hydrocarbons from asphalt on Chain of Craters Road, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
| med | large |
Left. R.I.P., turnaround on Chain of Craters Road at 0632. Right. Looking inland at 0641, showing active flow burning asphalt on road.
Location of former lua at turnaround on Chain of Craters Road, Kilauea volcano, Hawai`i
| med | large |

For old time's sake, here's former site of lua, safe and sound yesterday morning and surrounded by scorching hot lava flow at 0643 today. Fortunately, park workers managed to move building over lua itself before it would have burned.

22 July 2002

Eastern Wilipe`a bench and inflated flow

Inflated flow overlooks old lua site, Kilauea volcano, Hawai`i
| med | large |

Inflation of Wilipe`a lobe of Mother's Day flow since yesterday morning has lifted surface of flow higher than mound on which former toilet (lua) resided. Compare this image with the last one posted for 21 July.

Eastern front of eastern Wilipe`a bench, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Looking east at eastern Wilipe`a bench, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
| med | large |
Left. East side of eastern Wilipe`a bench at 0533. Note the several entry points and surface flows on bench. Right. Looking east across eastern Wilipe`a bench at 0550. Laze obscures part of west side of bench. Measured long-shore width of bench, 115 m. Estimated seaward width, 40 m.

23 July 2002

Various Wilipe`a views

Part of Wilipe`a bench, Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Skylight in lava tube feeding Wilipe`a bench, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
| med | large |
Left. Middle part of Wilipe`a bench, looking west at 0624. Imagine, two days ago the bench didn't exist! Steam rises from ocean-entry points along leading edge of bench. Note discoloration of surface, particularly near seaward side, caused by acidic alteration. Right. Small skylight, about 1 m in diameter, in tube 20 m upstream from old sea cliff. Tube carries lava to bench. Flow lines show movement from lower left to upper right.
Small flows and entries at west end of Wilipe`a bench, Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Small flows and entries at west end of Wilipe`a bench, Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
| med | large |
Left. Several small flows and ocean entries at west end of Wilipe`a bench at 0633. Right. Telephoto of part of area in image to left, showing details of entry points into roiling surf at 0634.

24 July 2002

Bench 'n breakouts, just what you need to start the day

Arty view of Wilipe`a entry, Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Wilipe`a bench just before sunrise, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
| med | large |
Left. Glow above east end of Wilipe`a bench at 0516. Right. Looking east across part of Wilipe`a bench at 0529, showing breakout and numerous incandescent cracks and toes. West Highcastle bench is just off left side of image this side of point in distance.
Visitors watch a breakout in Wilipe`a lobe of Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Lazy lava flow in Wilipe`a lobe of Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
| med | large |
Left. Breakout in Wilipe`a lobe 100 m inland from bench at 0550. Early risers just west of flow were treated to several such displays only a few meters away. Right. A lazy, oozing breakout  in Wilipe`a lobe below Chain of Craters Road at 0552. Smoke near right side of image comes from burning asphalt and grass along roadway. Pulama  pali, with dark, crusted Mother's Day flow on it, is in upper right.

25 July 2002

More bench 'n breakouts

Buck Moon over Wilipe`a bench, Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Lava oozing across black sand beach, east end of Wilipe`a bench, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
| med | large |
Left. Buck Moon, one day after full, eyes east end of Wilipe`a bench at 0512. Right. Looking onto east end of Wilipe`a bench at 0554, showing lava oozing across new black sand beach. Old sea cliff is on right. Sand apparently comes from glassy debris produced at West Highcastle entry and carried by long-shore current until stopped by new Wilipe`a bench.
New breakout on sea cliff above Wilipe`a bench, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Lava pours onto Wilipe`a bench from breakout, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
| med | large |
Left. Breakout in Wilipe`a lobe at 0610 spills onto east end of bench. Previous images taken from new visitor viewing area, where people stand. Right. Close-up of breakout in left image at 0613, after observer rushed back to action. Lava pours from tube on low sea cliff and spills onto bench, where it begins to cool and develop crust.
Breakout just reaching Wilipe`a bench, Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Breakout at inboard edge of Wilipe`a bench, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
| med | large |
More views of breakout as it develops. Left, 0618:30. Note incandescent slab of crust pushed up by torrent. Right, 0618:49. Note downstream cooling and wrinkling of crust on stream.
Taping breakout on sea cliff above Wilipe`a bench, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Taping breakout on sea cliff above Wilipe`a bench, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
| med | large |
Left. Local videographer tapes breakout at 0612:16. Right. HVO taping crew in action at 0622.
Boat near west end of Wilipe`a bench, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Entry points along west end of Wilipe`a bench, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
| med | large |
Left. Fishing boat risks everything at west end of Wilipe`a bench, 0634. Right. Small spigots feed lava off west end of Wilipe`a bench, 0636.

26 July 2002

West Highcastle glory, and Wilipe`a breakout

Lava freefall into ocean, lighting underside of wave, Kilauea volcano, Hawai`i
| med | large |

Lava free-falling 4-5 m into water off eastern front of West Highcastle bench, 0512. Underside of breaking wave is lit by glow from falls.

Digital zoom of lava falls off West Highcastle bench, Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Digital zoom of lava falls off West Highcastle bench, Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
| med | large |
Two more views of lava falling off front of West Highcastle bench, at 0528 (left) and 0539 (right). Digital zoom used, so less sharp than image above.
Breakout in Wilipe`a lobe near visitors, Kilauea volcano, Hawai`i
| med | large |

Small breakout in western part of Wilipe`a lobe, about 70 m inland from bench. Visitors walking to viewing area partly cropped off at top of image.
 

Mainly Wilipe`a bench, with West Highcastle bench in lower right, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
West Highcastle bench and feeding flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
| med | large |
Aerials of Wilipe`a and West Highcastle benches. Left. Wilipe`a bench, left center, is fed by flow that widens seaward and crosses Chain of Craters Road. New visitor turnaround is along road near top edge of image. Firebreak extends inland from turnaround. West Highcastle bench is partly shown at bottom of image. Right. West Highcastle bench, fed by lobe of Mother's Day flow that narrows seaward. Note small flow headed seaward in upper center of image. That flow, which moved 100 m farther in next two days, is aimed at western kipuka at Highcastle, where remnant of Chain of Craters Road is preserved.

28 July 2002

East end of Wilipe`a bench, and visitors watching west end of same bench

Thickened east end of Wilipe`a bench, Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
People watching lava at west end of Wilipe`a bench, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
| med | large |
Left. East end of Wilipe`a bench at 0553. Compare with image taken on July 25 to see how much bench has thickened. Black sand beach still remains. Right. Early risers at 0606 Sunday morning stand atop sea cliff and watch lava entering water off west end of Wilipe`a bench, off left side of image.

29 July 2002

West end of Wilipe`a bench

Entries and glow before dawn, west end of Wilipe`a bench, Kilauea volcano, Hawai`i
| med | large |

West end of Wilipe`a bench at 0529, showing multiple ocean entries, small breakouts on bench, and a glimpse of sky over the clouds. Note: all images today taken from same location exactly.

Breakout on west end of Wilipe`a bench, Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Advance of breakout at west end of Wilipe`a bench, Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
| med | large |
Sudden breakout at west end of Wilipe`a bench. Left. Image taken at 0528:30, 2.5 minutes after the upper breakout began. Lava gushed out of bench and moved some 20-25 m into the surf zone. Right. Taken at 0540:37, image at higher magnification shows details of lava stream pouring across bench into littoral regions, where stream is cloaked in steam.
West end of Wilipe`a bench at dawn, Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Visitors enjoying the show, west end of Wilipe`a bench, Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
| med | large |
Left. With daylight, more of bench can be seen at 0551. Breakout in lower left is same as that in upper two images but is greatly reduced in size and vigor. Right. Visitors atop sea cliff (upper left) view bench activity.

30 July 2002

Five moods of West Highcastle

A single entry off West Highcastle bench, Kilauea volcano, Hawai`i
| med | large |

A single faucet supplies lava from West Highcastle bench into water at 0526. Note: all images today taken from same location exactly.

Two lava entries off West Highcastle bench, Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Overview of West Highcastle bench and one entry point, Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
| med | large |
Left. Two discontinuous faucets in action at 0531. Slow shutter speed blends drips into continuous stream. Right. Overview of West Highcastle bench at 0540, to give perspective on where active faucet is located.
A drip of lava into ocean off West Highcastle bench, Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Two beheaded drips, West Highcastle bench, Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
| med | large |
Left. As dawn nears (0543:26), increased light allows faster shutter speed to capture a drip in progress. Right. At some time in our lives, many of us have probably wanted to behead a drip. Here are two beheaded drips, side by side, caught by accident at 0543:48.

31 July 2002

West end of Wilipe`a bench

Breakouts near water's edge, west side Wilipe`a bench, Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Large plume from entry at tip of Wilipe`a bench, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
| med | large |
Left. Breakouts near edge of bench, viewed from top of sea cliff amid many viewers. Right. Steam plume from entry near tip of bench. Plume rapidly grew from almost nothing to this size as large volume of lava gushed into sea.

Video of eruptive activity

Lava pours over Wilipea sea cliff into the sea, Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai`i July 21, 2002; 6:00 a.m. Lava spills over Wilipe`a sea cliff and across boulders into the sea.

Lava pours over lip of Wilipea sea cliff, Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai`i July 21, 2002; 6:00 a.m. Close view of lava spilling over the lip of Wilipe`a sea cliff.

Lava in the surf zone, Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai`i July 21, 2002; 6:10 a.m. Close view of wave crashing over lava in the surf zone.

Lava cascades into sea, Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai`i Lava cascades down sea cliff on July 19, 2002, 3.5 hours after Mother's Day flow reached to the sea.

Maps of lava-flow field, Kilauea Volcano

Map of flows from Pu`u `O`o: 21 July 2002

Map of lava flows on south coastal part of Kilauea Volcano as of 21 July 2002

Map shows lava flows erupted during the 1983-present activity of Pu`u `O`o and Kupaianaha (see large map). Lava from the Mother's Day flow (red flow on west side of flow field) reached the sea at West Highcastle early on July 19 and at Wilipe`a early on July 21. Active flows in May-July (shown in red) originate from two sources—the area of the rootless shields and an area just southwest of Pu`u `O`o. The two flows from the rootless shields are the Boundary flow, the longer flow along the edge of the national park, and the HALP flow, which moved into Royal Gardens subdivision on May 21. From near the southwest base of Pu`u `O`o, the Mother's Day flow passes along the west side of the flow field and into the forest, where it started a large wildfire in May that continued into late July. By June 10, the Mother's Day flow had reached the base of Paliuli, the steep slope and cliff below Pulama pali and just above the coastal flat. At the base of Paliuli, the Mother's Day flow abruptly spread laterally in a series of small budding flows to cover an area nearly 2 km wide, gradually moving seaward until the West Highcastle and Wilipe`a lobes finally reached the ocean and started building benches.

 


Eruption-viewing opportunities change constantly, so refer to this page often. Those readers planning a visit to Kilauea or Mauna Loa volcanoes can get much useful information from Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park; be sure to click on the IN-DEPTH button.


HomeVolcano WatchProductsPhoto GalleryPress Releases
How Hawaiian Volcanoes Work

The URL of this page is http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/multimedia/archive/2002/Jul/19-31.html
Contact: hvowebmaster@usgs.gov
Updated: 6 August 2002 (DAS)