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Kilauea

1 October 2002

From skylight to steaming rock

Horizontal view into skylight above Middle Highcastle delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Horizontal view into skylight above Middle Highcastle delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Horizontal views, taken while lying prone, into skylight on tube feeding lava to northeasternmost entry on Middle Highcastle delta. Yesterday morning tube filled, and lava gushed out of this skylight. Width of opening, about 50 cm. Fortunately this view was on upwind side of tube. Another skylight, on downwind side, was clogged with choking fume. 0513.
Lava at front of Middle Highcastle delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Lava at front of Middle Highcastle delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Two views of lava at edge of island, near southwest end of Middle Highcastle delta. Left. Small spigot in upper left and open channel in lower right. Width of view, about 10 m. 0604. Right. Telephoto of open channel, 3-4 m long. 0605.
Steaming rocks on beach at Middle Highcastle delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Steaming rocks on beach at Middle Highcastle delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Surf breaks off quenched lava, floats the pieces first out and then in, stranding them on beach. Left. Partly incandescent piece, 1 m wide, steaming on sand. 0615. Right. Several small hot rocks left after wave receded. 0616

3 October 2002

From glow to sunrise

Glow in steam above multiple entries along northeastern part of Middle Highcastle delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai`i
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Multiple ocean entries along northeastern front of Middle Highcastle lava delta create clouds of laze, which is a complex mix of steam and hydrochloric acid laced with bits of glass from littoral explosions. Were it not for the laze, there would be little glow. So, praise laze! 0532.

Early sunrise above Middle Highcastle delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Early sunrise above Middle Highcastle delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Early sunrise views across eastern and central parts of Middle Highcastle lava delta. Glowing entry areas are same as those in upper image. Left. 0546. Right. 0549.

4 October 2002

Day comes to West Highcastle

Moon sliver above active West Highcastle delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Moon sliver above active West Highcastle delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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The moon is not paper, the sea, not cardboard, and the scene, not make believe. Yet the view of lava pouring into the ocean off the southwestern part of West Highcastle (formerly called Middle Highcastle) delta is as catchy and memorable as the song. Left. 0501. Right. 0531.
Lava enters water just before dawn at active West Highcastle delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Daylight shows large steam plume from major entry point along West Highcastle delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Taken from same location as left image above just before daybreak. 0542. Right. Minutes before sunup, entry activity has died back temporarily, but one large plume of laze wafts seaward. 0606.

6 October 2002

Inside and outside a tube

Horizontal skylight in tube feeding West Highcastle delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Skylight in context above West Highcastle delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Looking horizontally into skylight of tube feeding northeast part of West Highcastle lava delta. Width of entire opening, about 1 m. 0606. Right. Skylight shown in left image, in broader context. Blue fume comes from skylight and is both hot and choking. Looking east toward Lae`apuki. 0606.
Lava toes in breakout at head of Wilipe`a lobe, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Lava toes in breakout at head of Wilipe`a lobe, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Two views of lava toes in small breakout more or less at head of Wilipe`a lobe one-third of way to Paliuli from coastline. Toes are less than 1 m wide. Left. 0625. Right. 0628.

7 October 2002

Same skylight but different sky

Horizontal skylight in tube feeding West Highcastle delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Glow along front of northeastern part of West Highcastle lava delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Looking horizontally into same skylight shown yesterday, in tube feeding northeast part of West Highcastle lava delta. Width of entire opening, about 1 m. Wind was more favorable this morning that it was yesterday, so it was possible to get nearer. 0526. Right. Predawn sky forms backdrop for glow from two main entry points along northeastern front of West Highcastle lava delta. 0538.

8 October 2002

Lava, wrinkles, and flames

Lava flow snakes through grass on coastal flat, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Tip of lava flow, with light on Chain of Craters Road in background, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. One branch of narrow flow within about 270 m of Chain of Craters Road. Note how flow gently snakes around low rise, always seeking low road. 0555 Right. Tip of other branch of flow, with amber light on shed in parking area near horizon (best seen in large image). 0559.
Wrinkles in crust of lava toe impinging on bush, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Lava spills from under crust on flow near Chain of Craters Road, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Wrinkled crust on toe of lava as it burns bush. Width of view, about 1 m. 0619. Right. Lava emerging from beneath crust along margin of flow moving toward Chain of Craters Road. Note flames from burning grass. Width of view, about 3 m. 0624.
Tip of flow burning grass, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Lava spills from under crust on flow near Chain of Craters Road, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Lava oozes through sparse grass, showing contrast between yellowish flame and orange lava. Note wrinkles developing on crust of lava toe. Width of view, about 1.5 m. 0625. Right. Color fringes and increasing size of wrinkles show lava moves from upper left to lower right. Grass burns along bottom edge of view. Width of view, about 3 m. 0626.

10 October 2002

Close-ups of lava and a nice sunrise

Flow for subsequent images, 525 m from Chain of Craters Road, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Rising loaf of lava, 525 m from Chain of Craters Road, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Tip of narrow flow tongue 525 m from Chain of Craters Road. This tongue has moved about 230 m toward road in past week. Note burning clump of grass in left center. 0611. Right. Inflating toe resembling a rising loaf of bread. Same flow as in left image. Width of view, about 50 cm. Crust is growing from bottom up, starting along the base of toe where lava is slowly extruding. 0609.
Sacks of lava about 225 m from Chain of Craters Road, Kilauea volcano, Hawai`i
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Toes resembling long sacks of lava in flow shown above. Width of view, about 3 m. 0608.

Extreme close-up of lava surface, 525 m from Chain of Craters Road, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Extreme close-up of lava surface, 525 m from Chain of Craters Road, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Close-ups of surface of small lava toe, so early in the cooling process that only enough crust has formed to record wrinkles and folds. Both images are in same flow as that shown above, but before dawn. Left. Corrugated surface of advancing toe, with flames from burning grass. Width of view, about 75 cm. 0520. Right. Greater close-up, showing some wrinkles in detail. Width of view, about 15 cm. 0521.
Pink predawn sky over flow tongue 525 m from Chain of Craters Road, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Just a pretty sunrise, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Sunrise, or more exactly predawn sky, from site of lava flow shown above. Left. Pink sky and red-orange lava. Puffing laze plume from Wilipe`a lava delta is strung out left to right by strong trade winds. 0549. Right. Orange sky. No lava, but pretty anyway. Scrubby `ohi`a trees form silhouettes. Small puff of laze along left edge of view. 0600.

11 October 2002

More on Mother's Day flow

Skylight in Mother's Day flow at about 1650-foot elevation, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Edge of Mother's Day flow in forest, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Skylight on eastern tube branch of Mother's Day flow at about 1650-foot elevation on Pulama pali. Blue fume is sulfurous gas from flow. Right. Margin of Mother's Day flow through forest above Pulama pali.
Aerial view of western part of Mother's Day flow and Wilipe`a delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Discolored water next to West Highcastle delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Aerial view shows car turn-around (edge of image) -and pavement beyond, ending at Mother's Day flow that feeds Wilipe`a lava delta. Inland of road, note fingers of flow headed through brown grass toward pavement. Length of pavement in image, 530 m. Right. Most of West Highcastle delta, coated with white mineral precipitates and sublimates, and adjacent, warm, discolored water rich in suspended glassy black sand. Former Highcastle site itself is at head of bay, in area of small grassy kipuka.

15 October 2002

Glow above Pulama pali

Glow above surface flow near top of Pulama pali, Kilauea volcano, Hawai`i
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Surface flow high on Pulama pali casts bright glow reflected by low-lying clouds. Flow apparently issues from main tube at or just above top of pali. The three segments of lava span about 500 m. View is from pavement just beyond gate at end of Chain of Craters Road. 0453.

17 October 2002

A glorious breakout and a pretty sunrise

Overview of breakout area on coastal flat, with flow on Pulama pali in background, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Incandescent surface of breakout, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Overview of breakout area (foreground) and flow on Pulama pali (background). Breakout occurred along inner margin of 20-25-m-wide depression. Following views were taken from position 10-15 m to right of edge of image. 0602. Right. Completely incandescent surface of wide breakout, at time of greatest activity about 5 minutes after breakout began from inflating flow off top of image. Lava is moving toward lower left, toward camera, and toward lower right as it fans outward to fill depression. Width of view, about 8 m. 0510.
Breakout on coastal flat, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Breakout on coastal flat, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Wider view of incandescent breakout, taken from same vantage point as right image above. Width of view, 15 m. Note flow on Pulama pali in background. 0516. Right. Breakout is waning, and most advance now is as bulbous toes coming from under crust. This one is about 50 cm wide. Note wrinkling of crust downstream from point of emergence. View looks steeply down into depression containing breakout. 0524.
Wrinkles on surface of breakout on coastal flat, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Wrinkles on surface of breakout on coastal flat, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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More views of wrinkled skin on toes coming from under crust of large breakout. Left. 0526. Right. Note bubbles, some stretched, in lava. 0527.
Small cascade in breakout on coastal flat, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Small cascade in breakout on coastal flat, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Small stream pours from under crust of wide breakout and plunges into hole at far side of depression. Left. Overview of this cascade, directly below camera. Width of view, 4-5 m. Next views show details of cascade, looking upstream. 0549. Right. Lava flows toward camera down steep slope into hole. Head-on view of cascade shown in left image. 0550.
Details of small cascade in breakout on coastal flat, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Details of small cascade in breakout on coastal flat, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Details of cascade, at higher magnification that right image above. Width of this and following images, about 30 cm. Note streaked flow lines, incipient wrinkles, and bits of floating crust. Left. 0552. Right. Crust in center of cascade is starting to tear apart in upper center as lava plunges down steep slope. 0553:11.
Details of small cascade in breakout on coastal flat, Kilauea volcano, Hawai`i
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Another section of crust has completely separated into two pieces on the steep slope. 0553:44.

Sunrise from site of breakout on coastal flat, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Sunrise from site of breakout on coastal flat, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Dueling views of sunrise, with plume of laze wafting above West Highcastle delta. Images taken from site of breakouts shown above. Left. 0542. Right. 0557.

18 October 2002

Mother's Day flow on Pulama pali

`A`a flow from breakout at 1050-foot elevation on Pulama pali, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Lava along eastern margin of Mother's Day flow on Pulama pali, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Dark `a`a flow from breakout at about 1050 feet on Pulama pali descends onto gentle slope above Paliuli. Gray pahoehoe in background is from old Far West flow. Note dead brown trees killed by fires as Mother's Day flow has moved through sparse forest. Right. Active pahoehoe along eastern margin of Mother's Day flow covers grassy slope on Pulama pali.

20 October 2002

Harvest Moon and pasty lava

Pasty lava oozing from breakout on coastal flat below Harvest Moon, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Lava burning brush below Harvest Moon, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Pasty lava spreads from small breakout 730 m from ranger hut at end of Chain of Craters Road. Nearly full Harvest Moon above. 0459. Right. Lava has set fire to brush below Harvest Moon. Large view shows headlights of car on Holei Pali in upper right corner of image. 0521.

24 October 2002

New beaches

New black sand beaches made of sand from Wilipe`a and West Highcastle ocean entries, Kilauea volcano, Hawai`i
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Beaches of black sand are forming along rugged coastline southwest of Wilipe`a and West Highcastle lava deltas. Black sand is made of glass, formed when water quenches lava. This view is taken from 3.5 km southwest of Wilipe`a, with laze plumes from both deltas visible on either side of niu (coconut) grove.

27 October 2002

Unsafe viewing "to da max" on Wilipe`a lava delta

Foolish viewers of lava entry on Wilipe`a delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Foolish viewers watch spattering at lava entry on Wilipe`a lava delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Like moths to flame, people have walked past park signs warning of delta (bench) hazards and ventured across Wilipe`a lava delta to observe lava entering water. This is totally unsafe. Four people have been killed on lava deltas during the eruption, in three different ways. People MUST NOT go on the lava delta. No image shown on this web site has been taken on an active lava delta, and none will be. Left. Foolhardy viewers serve as Pied Pipers in plain sight of, and tempting, others heeding park warnings. 0511. Right. Same viewers with spatter in air from nearby small littoral explosion. Best seen in large image. 0517.
Foolish viewers of lava entry on Wilipe`a delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Foolish viewers watch lava entry at dawn on Wilipe`a lava delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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The Pied Pipers have attracted more. Left. Four viewers at edge of Wilipe`a delta, with breakout at their feet. 0547. Right. Group now numbers 7 at dawn. Before long, the group was more than 14. 0607.

30 October 2002

Northeast end of West Highcastle lava delta

Steam rising from underwater lava off West Highcastle delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Sunrise viewed from above northeast end of West Highcastle lava delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Laze plume rises from lava entry at northeast end of West Highcastle delta. Glow barely visible. Note narrow streak of steam extending across water surface from entry point. This indicates presence of hot flow on sea floor reaching beyond front of delta. 0611. Right. Just couldn't pass up this sunrise, taken from same place as left image. 0608.

Maps of lava-flow field, Kilauea Volcano

Map of flows from Pu`u `O`o: 10 September 2002

Map of lava flows on south coastal part of Kilauea Volcano as of 10 September 2002

Map shows lava flows erupted during the 1983-present activity of Pu`u `O`o and Kupaianaha (see large map). Active flows in May-July (shown in red) originated from two sources?the area of the rootless shields and an area just southwest of Pu`u `O`o. The two flows from the rootless shields are the Boundary flow, the longer flow along the edge of the national park, and the HALP flow, which moved into Royal Gardens subdivision on May 21. Lava from the Mother's Day flow (red flow on west side of flow field) reached the sea at West Highcastle early on July 19, at Wilipe`a early on July 21, and at Highcastle on August 8. From near the southwest base of Pu`u `O`o, the Mother's Day flow passes along the west side of the flow field and into the forest, where it started a large wildfire in May that continued into late July. By June 10, the Mother's Day flow had reached the base of Paliuli, the steep slope and cliff below Pulama pali and just above the coastal flat. At the base of Paliuli, the Mother's Day flow abruptly spread laterally in a series of small budding flows to cover an area nearly 2 km wide, gradually moving seaward until the West Highcastle and Wilipe`a lobes finally reached the ocean and started building benches. Activity at West Highcastle ended in early August, but entry began soon thereafter at Highcastle, eventually burying tiny kipuka of the Chain of Craters Road. The Wilipe`a entry died away slowly and had ended by mid-August. Highcastle and neighboring Highcastle Stairs entries ended on about August 23. For a time there were no active entries. Then Wilipe`a was reactivated on September 3 and remains active as of September 19. West Highcastle likewise renewed its activity on September 16-17 but died away during the night of September 18-19. Not shown on the map is the new northeastern end of the Wilipe`a bench, which extends halfway to West Highcastle from the east end of the bench shown on the map.

 


Eruption-viewing opportunities change constantly, so refer to this page often. Those readers planning a visit to Kilauea or Mauna Loa volcanoes can get much useful information from Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park; be sure to click on the IN-DEPTH button.


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Updated: 3 November 2002 (DAS)