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Kilauea

2 September 2002

Cascade and channel from start to finish

Cascade down Paliuli feeds lava channel, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Cascade down Paliuli feeds lava channel, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Views of gushing cascade and channel down Paliuli, curving westward as it descends the lava fan. Cascade is near the western limit of recent drapery on the pali. Left. 0608. Right. 0630. Note lava in foreground fed by slosh from channel.
Cascade down Paliuli feeds lava channel, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Rafts of crust in active lava channel, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Closer view of branching cascade and main channel. Note earlier drapery hanging on pali above channel. 0623. Right. Lava channel near its end, with floating rafts of crust. Sunlit Paliuli behind. 0616.
End of lava channel in slabby pahoehoe and `a`a, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
End of lava channel in slabby pahoehoe and `a`a, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Channel loses identity as it merges westward (left) into sluggish slabby pahoehoe and `a`a. Beyond is still-hot inflating flow. 0605. Right. Looking across sluggish flow toward Paliuli. Crust on flow resembles that of slabby pahoehoe in places and of `a`a in others. 0638.

3 September 2002

Home stretch for lava in its travel to the sea

Lava nears beach at east end of Wilipe`a bench, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Lava poised to move onto beach at east end of Wilipe`a bench, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Views of lava nearing Nirvana, a.k.a. black sand beach at east end of Wilipe`a bench. Left. Lava spreads across 1995 bench below old sea cliff. 0553. Right. Tip of flow is poised at top of 1-m-high cliff above beach. 0601:55.
Lava flows onto beach at east end of Wilipe`a bench, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Tip of flow bulldozed up loose sand on beach, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Lava touched the beach at 0603. Quickly the stream enlarged and divided into two cascades. Left. Lava starts to move down beach toward sea. 0605:30. Right. Alligator snout of flow--developed from leading edge near right edge of image to left--has cooled by flowing across wet sand, bulldozed into sand, and is nearly stagnant. 0610:14.
Lava flows down wave-eroded slope onto beach at east end of Wilipe`a bench, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Lava just touches water, generating small amount of steam, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Flow picks up and eventually hits water. Left. Lava rushes down wave-cut scarp in beach. 0610:46. Right. Flow kisses water, generating small amount of steam. 0617:42.
Lava moves over low cliff onto beach east of Wilipe`a bench, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Lava flows across beach, with old viewing area behind, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. One branch of the lava stream drips down small cliff at head of bench, and one flows onto bench. 0620:40. Right. Lava flows over cliff and down wave-cut slope, with old visitor viewing area behind. 0622.
Overview of small flow on beach, Kilauea volcano, Hawai`i
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Last view of lava on beach, with steam now forming constant acidic plume hazardous to your health. 0627.

4 September 2002

Western cascade on Paliuli

Western cascade on Paliuli from a distance, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
View of western Paliuli cascade showing lava fan it is constructing, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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This cascade of lava has been active most of the past several days. Left. Head-on view showing Pulama pali in background above Paliuli and broad fan being built by lava pouring down to coastal flat. Right. Looking along Paliuli, showing slope of fan and lava flowing down it.

New bench formed in past day

Predawn view of eastern part of new bench, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
View of eastern part of new bench in dawn's early light, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Esoteric and mundane views of eastern part of new bench taken from about the same spot. Left. 0458. Right. See image below for scale. 0558.
Photographer above new bench, Kilauea volcano, Hawai`i
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Photographer provides scale above skylight in lava tube on new bench. Skylight is same as that near right side of above two images. 0600.

Lava being added to front of Wilipe`a bench, Kilauea volcano, Hawai`i
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Looking west across eastern part of Wilipe`a bench (light, covered with sublimates from laze), formed in late July. New flow (dark) moved onto former beach in foreground, covered beach and part of Wilipe`a bench, and moved westward along the front of the Wilipe`a. Several active entries can be seen in this and subsequent images. Lava also moved eastward from this spot to areas shown in above images. Beach in images of September 3 is buried below dark flow in lower center of image.

Happy-face moon looks down on new entry at front of Wilipe`a bench, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Entry points performing below dawning sky, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Lava enters water at front of Wilipe`a bench, near the western limit of the new addition to the bench. Left. Smiling moon at 0528. Right. Better view of entry points. 0531.

6 September 2002

East end of Wilipe`a bench

Active east end of Wilipe`a bench, Kilauea volcano, Hawai`i
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Lava pours off eastern front of Wilipe`a bench into oblivion. This is your last view of it before it turns into solid rock. Such a scene may be commonplace these days, but beauty is beauty no matter how often observed. 0524.

8 September 2002

Lava cascade and growing bench

Five distributaries carry lava down Paliuli, Kilauea volcano, Hawai`i
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Two main streams, and three smaller ones, carry lava down fan on Paliuli from single source hidden above pali. Lava supplies sluggish `a`a and slabby pahoehoe flows that reach from lower part of fan onto coastal flat beyond. The change from yesterday's tube flow to this surface flow robbed lava from the inflating flow on flat. Consequently, the western side of the flow field is not growing this morning as it was yesterday. 0543.

Wilipe`a bench growing across beach with hot rocks, Kilauea volcano, Hawai`i
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East side of Wilipe`a bench showing how it is widening along the coast and covering part of a long black sand beach. Note steaming rocks on beach; waves broke them from bench and stranded them in swash zone.

9 September 2002

Scenes of new bench and feeding flow

Lava pours from front of new bench just northeast of Wilipe`a, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Part of new bench formed in past 24 hours just northeast of Wilipe`a, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Several streams fed by lava inside new bench pour into water at most seaward part of bench, which has formed in past 24 hours. 0604. Right. Looking northeast along new bench from top of sea cliff. Note small breakout in distance, the same one shown on left below. Entries in left view are hidden by laze just off right side of image. 0617.
Looking vertically down onto small breakout on surface of new bench just northeast of Wilipe`a, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Breakouts in flow feeding lava to new bench just northeast of Wilipe`a, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Looking almost vertically onto small breakouts on new bench (location shown in right image above). 0615. Right. View up flow that feeds lava to new bench. This flow mantles the old sea cliff developed in pre1995 flows. Person on skyline for scale. 0620.

10 September 2002

Bench grows and lava flows

Spigot feeds lava into water off new northeast end of Wilipe`a bench, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Spigot feeds lava into water off new northeast end of Wilipe`a bench, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Spigot drops lava into water off new northeast end of Wilipe`a bench. Lava stream is 2-3 m tall. Left. 0514. Right. 0521.
Glow from lava reflected in water at new northeast end of Wilipe`a bench, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Dark wave poised to break over entry at new northeast end of Wilipe`a bench, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Between waves, small lava flows and falls are visible at 0535. Right. As dawn approaches, dark wave is poised to break over lava at the entry. 0548.
Surface of new northeast end of Wilipe`a bench, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Breakout in flow feeding Wilipe`a bench, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Surface of new northeastern part of Wilipe`a bench. Compare with right-hand image below, taken from about the same place. 0603. Right. Small breakout in flow feeding Wilipe`a bench. This is one of scores of breakouts in the flow, constantly changing as flow inflates and moves forward. 0612.

11 September 2002

Lava and water at Wilipe`a bench

Spigots feed lava into water off new northeast end of Wilipe`a bench, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Lava flows into water off new northeast end of Wilipe`a bench, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Telephoto of three lava streams pouring into water from new northeast end of Wilipe`a bench. 0539. Right. Wider view of entry points in this area. Highest lava fall is 2-3 m. 0545.
Spigots feed lava into water off new northeast end of Wilipe`a bench, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Lava flows into water off new northeast end of Wilipe`a bench, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Telephoto of lava streams pouring into water at same place as in left image above. Dawn light allows better view of the edge of the bench. 0559. Right. Same area, but pulled back to see surface flow that feeds one entry point. 0602.
Trickle of lava down pre1995 sea cliff, part of flow feeding Wilipe`a entry, Kilauea volcano, Hawai`i
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Small channel of lava flowing down pre1995 sea cliff. This is small breakout from flow that feeds Wilipe`a entry. Such channels create drapery on the old cliff; such drapery from 1995 coats cliff right of active flow. 0619.

12 September 2002

Lava trying to sneak to Highcastle by dawn's early light

Lava flowing along west side of Highcastle lobe, Kilauea volcano, Hawai`i
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Active tip of narrow flow along west edge of Highcastle lobe, advancing toward coastline between Highcastle and West Highcastle benches. At time image was taken, lava was 130 m from top of sea cliff, which overlooks a narrow bench. Movement is sluggish (tongue has moved only 140 m since September 8), and new entry is not imminent. 0556.

13 September 2002

Helicopter view of Wilipe`a

Aerial view of Wilipe`a, Kilauea volcano, Hawai`i
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View of Wilipe`a bench looking northeast, best seen in large image. Narrow flow, which sent arm down road, has built small fan across old sea cliff onto bench. Broad shiny flow east of small kipuka is main feeder for bench and has built fan mostly obscuring old sea cliff. Active part of bench is steaming and has built out from former smooth front of the July-early August version of the bench. Note how bench now extends northeastward, hugging coastline below dark kipuka in 1995 flows. Pre-1995 sea cliff, and cliff eroded into the 1995 delta, also visible. West Highcastle lobe and entry area active in July-August borders northeast side of kipuka, and, in distance across another kipuka, is snippet of Highcastle lobe and bench. In upper left is active western part of flow.

End of the journey

Lava enters water off new northeast end of Wilipe`a bench, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Lava flows into water off new northeast end of Wilipe`a bench, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Views of northeastern part of Wilipe`a bench, showing lava at end of its journey of  more than 60 km up from within the earth, 20 km through plumbing of east rift zone, and 11 km along tubes from Pu`u `O`o. Potentially near end of their journey are two photographers near right side of each image. Left. 0544. Right. 0545.
Lava enters water off new northeast end of Wilipe`a bench, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Small breakout heading the wrong way, with Wilipe`a bench in background, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Another view of entry. Photographers give scale 0549. Right. Breakout in Wilipe`a lobe heading wrong way, away from bench and ocean in background. 0559.

Maps of lava-flow field, Kilauea Volcano

Map of flows from Pu`u `O`o: 10 September 2002

Map of lava flows on south coastal part of Kilauea Volcano as of 10 September 2002

Map shows lava flows erupted during the 1983-present activity of Pu`u `O`o and Kupaianaha (see large map). Active flows in May-July (shown in red) originated from two sources?the area of the rootless shields and an area just southwest of Pu`u `O`o. The two flows from the rootless shields are the Boundary flow, the longer flow along the edge of the national park, and the HALP flow, which moved into Royal Gardens subdivision on May 21. Lava from the Mother's Day flow (red flow on west side of flow field) reached the sea at West Highcastle early on July 19, at Wilipe`a early on July 21, and at Highcastle on August 8. From near the southwest base of Pu`u `O`o, the Mother's Day flow passes along the west side of the flow field and into the forest, where it started a large wildfire in May that continued into late July. By June 10, the Mother's Day flow had reached the base of Paliuli, the steep slope and cliff below Pulama pali and just above the coastal flat. At the base of Paliuli, the Mother's Day flow abruptly spread laterally in a series of small budding flows to cover an area nearly 2 km wide, gradually moving seaward until the West Highcastle and Wilipe`a lobes finally reached the ocean and started building benches. Activity at West Highcastle ended in early August, but entry began soon thereafter at Highcastle, eventually burying tiny kipuka of the Chain of Craters Road. The Wilipe`a entry died away slowly and had ended by mid-August. Highcastle and neighboring Highcastle Stairs entries ended on about August 23. For a time there were no active entries. Then Wilipe`a was reactivated on September 3 and remains active as of September 11. Not shown on the map is the new northeastern end of the Wilipe`a bench, which extends halfway to West Highcastle from the east end of the bench shown on the map.

 


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Updated: 19 September 2002 (DAS)