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Kilauea

1 April 2003

Lava trumps road

Lava of Kohola flow on road, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Lava of Kohola flow on road, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. No Parking is a given now that lava is entering turnaround area at very end of Chain of Craters Road. 0602. Right. Asphalt burns near western margin of Kohola flow. In background is coconut grove, once but not now endangered by flow. 0611.
Lava of Kohola flow on road, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Lava of Kohola flow on road, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Detail of lava covering asphalt near west edge of Kohola flow. 0620. Right. Smoke from burning asphalt as seen from current barriers on roadway. 0623

2 April 2003

Inflated flow on road

Inflated Kohola flow on road, nearly obscuring No Parking sign, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Inflated Kohola flow on road, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. View of same No Parking sign as that shown in first image of April 1. Lava flow now completely covers the old turnaround. Note how the flow has inflated, a total of about 2 m in past 24 hours. 0605. Right. Another view of inflated flow, taken from same vantage as 0610 photo on March 31. 0607.

4 April 2003

Rain on the flow field

Aerial view of ocean entries off front of West Highcastle lava delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Ghostly figures making VLF measurement 70 m downtube from Son of Cookie Monster skylight, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Lava enters water off right (east) and left (west) parts of West Highcastle lava delta. Western entry visible only in large view. Inclement weather accounts for poor visibility. 0913. Right. Ghostly figures at work on VLF traverse across lava tube about 70 m downstream from Son of Cookie Monster skylight, near start of Mother's Day flow. VLF traverse is used to calculate flux of lava in tube. Steam rises from rain falling on hot flow. 0947.

6 April 2003

Pleasant Sunday morning between rain showers

Glow above surface flows in Mother's Day flow on Pulama pali, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Hot breakout in Kohola flow 200 m seaward of huge ahu, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Glow hangs over surface lava on Pulama pali. Note forest lit by glow high on pali. 0516. Right. Gush of lava from small breakout 200 m seaward of huge ahu (see last image today). Width of view, about 1 m. 0541.
Front of lava toe about to pick up small flake of crust from ground surface, Kohola flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Front of lava toe that just picked up small flake of crust from ground surface, Kohola flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Toe of lava about 1 m wide is about to pick up flake of crust (left) from ground surface. 0553:14. Right. Twelve seconds later, flake is now riding up as front of toe inflates above moving lava. Exactly same setup as in image to left. 0553:26.
Small gush of lava developing folds in crust, Kohola flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Huge ahu with recent lava lapping at its base, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Gush of lava moving down steep slope and slowing where it enters shallow depression. Cooling crust develops wrinkles where the lava slows. 0556. Right. Ahu 2 m high, with recently emplaced flow lapping at its base. Note incandescent active toe in distance right of ahu. Kipuka containing ahu may be overridden at any time, though ahu will stand high until topped or broken during inflation. 0608.

8 April 2003

Breakouts in the Kohola flow

Photographer observing breakout with wrinkled and corrugated crust, Kohola flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Photographer observing breakout in Kohola flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Rather wide breakout coming from inflating tumulus (right) and moving slowly toward photographer. Note deep, widely spaced corrugations and wrinkles in crust on decelerating flow. 0555. Right. Slow breakout oozing from same location as that in left image but 11 minutes later and with different photographer in action. 0606.
Base of flow uplifted by inflation from original ground surface, Kohola flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Here comes the sun over breakout in Kohola flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Inflation of interior of flow is lifting edge of  flow upward off ground surface, exposing incandescent interior. Old ground surface is in foreground and projects beneath incandescence. Width of view, about 2 m. Image taken with flash, 0538.  Right. Here comes the sun over breakout shown in above right. 0612.

11 April 2003

Lava and the ahu

Ahu in small remnant of kipuka, with advancing lava in breakout of Kohola flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Breakout near ahu in Kohola flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Ahu, 2.7 m high, stands at seaward end of kipuka, seeming to guard against advancing lava. Note brown, dead grass and brush between ahu and lava, and burned remnants of two former trees lying on still-hot flow left of ahu. This ahu was on a high tumulus near western margin of Mother's Day flow before Kohola arm of that flow moved around it and inflated. 0555. Right. Lava moves across kipuka at front of advancing breakout. 0606.
Lava slouches down front of breakout of Kohola flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Lava slowly oozes into crack on surface of kipuka, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Lava at front of advancing breakout slouches down to base of flow front. Width of view, about 1.5 m. 0558. Right. In same area, lava finds its way into crack in surface of kipuka. Width of view, 1 m. 0600.
East side of breakout front near ahu, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
West side of breakout front encountering vegetation, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Front of breakout nears vegetation. Photo taken from near ahu. 0610. Right. West side of breakout front, just meeting dead vegetation. 0613.
Lava nears ahu, Kohola flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Lava nears ahu, Kohola flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Lava has covered most of remaining kipuka and is advancing toward 2.7-m-high ahu. 0616. Right. Nine minutes later and nearer ahu, lava breaks out of inflating flow along long crack in crust. 0625.
Lava kisses ahu, Kohola flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Lava at base of ahu, Kohola flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Lava kisses upslope side of ahu. View looks west at 0628. Right. View looks east across front of breakout to ahu. Red color on side of ahu (best seen in large view) is not incandescence but rather flower left as offering for Pele. No more than 5 minutes later, the last remaining surface of kipuka (lower left) was covered. 0639.

12 April 2003

Inflated lava and the ahu: what a difference a day makes

Inflated Kohola flow nearly overtops huge ahu, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Inflated Kohola flow nearly overtops huge ahu, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Looking west at ahu that yesterday morning stood 2.7 m above its surroundings. Inflation of  breakout has virtually leveled the playing field, leaving only top of ahu projecting above ground level. 0622. Right. Same view, but looking east, from about same location as was last image of yesterday. 0624.
Inflated Kohola flow nearly overtops huge ahu, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Inflated Kohola flow nearly overtops huge ahu, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Moat separates ahu from inflated flow, allowing wall of ahu to still be seen. Note red flower (large view) is preserved; see yesterday's last image. 0625. Right. Another view of ahu and moat surrounding it. Remains of past offerings, and stick of unknown significance, on top of ahu, once 2.7 m above ground. 0626.

Video of eruptive activity

11 April 2003

Lava moving in Kohola flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai`i April 11, 2003; 0606. Lava moving along east edge of breakout near ahu. Width of view, about 1 m.

Lava moving at front of breakout in Kohola flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai`i April 11, 2003; 0608. Lava at front of breakout moves into and burns dead shrubbery. Width of view, about 2 m.

Maps of lava-flow field, Kilauea Volcano

Map of flows from Pu`u `O`o: 21 March 2003

Map of lava flows on south coastal part of Kilauea Volcano as of 21 March 2003

Map shows lava flows erupted during 1983-present activity of Pu`u `O`o and Kupaianaha (see large map). Red colors, both dark and light, denote Mother's Day flow, which began erupting on May 12, 2002. Different shades of red indicate different stages of activity of Mother's Day flow. These different stages are still considered part of Mother's Day flow, because they all come from same tube system near base of Pu`u `O`o.

Most recent--and ongoing--activity has produced two slender, dark red flows, one along western edge of flow field and one slightly farther east. Kohola flow, along western margin, entered sea late on Valentine's Day to form Kohola ocean entry. Lava is slowly widening Kohola flow eastward on March 21. Visitors now can drive to Holei Sea Arch, 1.1 km from Kohola flow, and walk to see flow.

Other dark red flow is also active part of Mother's Day flow. Fed by breakouts from lava tube in main Mother's Day flow, it had advanced along eastern margin of main flow and down Pulama pali to about 800-foot elevation by March 21. This flow is visible during darkness from Chain of Craters Road.

Lava from main Mother's Day flow (light red) reached sea at West Highcastle early on July 19, at Wilipe`a early on July 21, and at Highcastle on August 8. From near southwest base of Pu`u `O`o, Mother's Day flow passes along west side of flow field and into forest, where it started large wildfire in May that continued into late July. By June 10, Mother's Day flow had reached base of Paliuli, the steep slope and cliff below Pulama pali and just above coastal flat. At base of Paliuli, Mother's Day flow abruptly spread laterally in series of small budding flows to cover an area nearly 2 km wide, gradually moving seaward until West Highcastle and Wilipe`a lobes finally reached water and started building lava deltas. Activity at West Highcastle ended in early August, but entry began soon thereafter at Highcastle, eventually burying tiny kipuka of Chain of Craters Road. Wilipe`a entry died away slowly and had ended by mid-August. Highcastle and neighboring Highcastle Stairs entries ended on about August 23. For a time there were no active entries. Then Wilipe`a was reactivated on September 3 but stopped in December. West Highcastle likewise renewed activity on September 16-17, died away during night of September 18-19, and returned soon thereafter to continue through March 21. East arm of Mother's Day flow branched from Highcastle lobe in late October and sent three fingers into ocean at Highcastle on November 15, West Lae`apuki on November 19, and Lae`apuki on November 20. Lae`apuki entries had stopped by November 29. If this sounds like soap opera, the truth is even more confusing than the simplified version of activity given here.

 


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Updated: 19 April 2003 (DAS)