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16 August 2003

Just another family of breakouts

Breakout in east lobe of Kohola arm of Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Breakouts in east lobe of Kohola arm of Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Lava flows to surface from inflating flow in background and fills in depression between two low tumuli. Width of lava, about 6 m. Note incandescent spots on Pulama pali. Those near right edge are in east-side lobe of main Mother's Day flow. Those near left edge (faint) are in Kohola arm just below elbow. 0537. Right. Similar to left image, but with more light to give view of pali. Near top right corner, fume rises from east-side lobe of main Mother's Day flow. Dark flow on pali in upper center is old west lobe of Kohola; lighter gray  flow on pali in upper left is newer west lobe, the one that cascaded down Holei Pali last week. 0546.
Breakout in east lobe of Kohola arm of Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Breakouts in east lobe of Kohola arm of Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Looking east across breakout area shown above. Lava breaks out of tumulus to left. Width of nearest lava toe, about 2 m. 0549. Right. Looking west across breakout area shown above. Depression being filled by lava is clearly shown. Lava emerges from tumulus to right. Holei Pali, near where Chain of Craters Road switchbacks, in distance. 0551.
Breakout in east lobe of Kohola arm of Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Breakouts in east lobe of Kohola arm of Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Two small toes from area shown above abutting as they flow into depression. Width of lava, about 1 m. 0547. Right. Wrinkles forming festoon n crust on toe emerging from under crust and flowing into depression near site of left image. Width of festoon, about 1 m. 0559.

20 August 2003

Nice way to start the day

Burning tree on coastal flat with background cascades on Holei Pali, Kohola arm of Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Burning tree on coastal flat, Kohola arm of Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Burning `ohi`a tree surrounded by lava at southwest corner of Kohola flow on coastal flat. In upper right are distant cascades down Holei Pali, 850 m away. 0521. Right. Same tree as in left image, but 14 minutes later. One trunk of tree has fallen onto crusted flow with incandescent areas. Standing trunk is about 2 m high. 0535.
Crusting lava, Kohola arm of Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Lava on coastal flat in Kohola arm of Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Crusting breakout from flow that surrounded tree (upper left). 0532. Right. Looking up Kohola from its southwest terminus, showing cascade on Holei Pali in background. All lava in image comes from Kohola arm of Mothers' Day flow, but cascades are in separate branch from that which feeds foreground lava. Main tube in Kohola is above cascades and carries lava farther east (right) than shown in image. The tube descends Paliuli and feeds flow on coastal flat that spreads southwestward, to area shown in photograph, as well as southeastward. 0541.
Active breakout with people for scale, Kohola arm of Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Active breakout with people for scale, Kohola arm of Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Breakout near southwest front of Kohola, oozing along through sparse grassland. Visitors in distance admire another breakout. View looks west, with distant Holei Pali in upper right. 0547. Right. Heat shimmer above breakout blurs visitors in distance. View looks upstream, toward Pulama pali. Lava flows around tumulus in several-hundred-year-old pahoehoe flow. 0556.
Lava snaking around old tumulus, Kohola arm of Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Lava snaking around old tumulus, Kohola arm of Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Lava snaking around another small tumulus in old flow. Cascade on Holei Pali in background. Width of active front, about 1.5 m. 0604. Right. Head-on view of breakout curving around old tumulus and burning grass at active front. Cascade on Holei Pali in background. Width of incandescence, 3-4 m. 0607.

22 August 2003

Scenes along still-active August 9 breakout

Breakouts from terminus of August 9 breakout of Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Breakouts from terminus of August 9 breakout of Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Breakouts at terminus of flow that started on August 9 during sharp inflation of Kilauea's summit and Pu`u `O`o. Flow remains active today at the 2050-foot elevation. 1127. Right. Same as image to left. 1129.
Log mold near terminus of August 9 breakout of Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Log mold near terminus of August 9 breakout of Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Log of tree burned by flow several years ago engulfed by pahoehoe from the flow of August 9 along east side of upper Mothers' Day flow field. 1204. Right. Same as image to left, but close-up showing ash from burned wood in mold. 1205.

24 August 2003

Sunrise and breakouts on a fine Sunday morning

Moon at early sunrise over breakouts in Kohola arm of Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Sunrise over breakouts in Kohola arm of Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Breakout near southeast corner of Kohola on coastal flat, at early sunrise with sliver of  moon in halo. 0523. Right. Sunrise over another breakout in same general area as left image. 0549.
Breakouts in Kohola arm of Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Breakouts in Kohola arm of Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Lava emerges from under crust at top of image and flows along crease between two inflated areas. Crust formed on gentle slope, but lava breaks out from under it as slope increases. Incandescent toe is about 50 cm across. 0602. Right. Another breakout, showing rather rapid movement into crease between earlier toes. Width of image, about 2 m. 0606.
Kohola breakout with pali in background, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Kohola breakout with pali in background, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Front of wide breakout in Kohola arm of Mother's Day flow on coastal flat. Lava in foreground is supplied through a tube down Pulama pali and Paliuli. White fume from upper center of image comes from this tube, which angles downslope from upper left. Fume is from top of Paliuli; above looms Pulama pali and, to left, Holei Pali. 0615. Right. Same breakout as in left image, but wider view looking toward pali system. Fume in left image is at right edge of this image. Two bare areas on pali indicate different vintages of Kohola. That to right (with fume) became active earlier in summer; that to left shows flow that dropped over Holei Pali and thence Paliuli within past 3 weeks. This morning, two small areas of surface lava are in the left bare area at top of Paliuli. 0623.

28 August 2003

Mostly a tumulus Thursday

Slowly oozing breakout before dawn in Kohola arm of Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Breakouts in Kohola arm of Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Front of thin breakout slowly moving across lightly vegetated ground, with predawn sky as backdrop. Southwest end of Kohola on coastal flat. 0542. Right. Closer view of breakout in left image. Yellow flames from burning grass play near left and right edges of view. Front of breakout is about 30 cm thick. 0543.
Lava oozing from inflating tumulus in Kohola arm of Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Lava oozing from inflating tumulus in Kohola arm of Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Small tumulus along western edge of Kohola on coastal flat. Tumulus is actively forming and feeding lava onto surface from cracks in crust. Tumulus is both growing higher and disgorging excess lava onto surface. Height of tumulus, about 2.5 m. 0548. Right. Two breakouts from tumulus to left 5 minutes later. 0553.
Lava toe coming from inflating tumulus in Kohola arm of Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Lava oozing from inflating tumulus in Kohola arm of Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Toe of lava from tumulus shown above, about 1 m long and oozing along crease between earlier toes. Note flakes of crust on surface of toe, picked up from underlying crust. 0549. Right. Breakout from tumulus above, showing flakes of crust on underlying surface (along edge of lower toe) in process of being stuck to lava and uplifted as toe inflates. Note flakes of crust already on breakout, lifted from underlying surface as lava passed over it. Toe nearest camera is 40 cm wide. 0550.

29 August 2003

Verrrry layyyyzeeee Friday at southeast tip of Kohola

Slowly oozing breakout before dawn in Kohola arm of Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Stretched bubbles in moving toe of Kohola arm of Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Small breakout at southeast tip of Kohola at end of park's trail on coastal flat, about 540 m from Wilipe`a lava delta. Lava toe is about 2 m wide. 0540. Right. Stretched bubbles are apparent in this close-up of oozing toe. Width, about 40 cm. 0542.
Lava slithering in breakout of Kohola arm of Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Lava slithering in breakout of Kohola arm of Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Small breakout slouching toward nothing (with apologies to Joan Didion). Lava oozes from southeast tip of Kohola and looks for place to go, finding one along crease between earlier toes. Incandescent finger about 1 m long. 0545. Right. Same lazy ooze, with incandescence from active toe reflecting off niche at base of earlier lobe. Width of image, 3-4 m. 0548.

Maps of lava-flow field, Kilauea Volcano

Map of flows from Pu`u `O`o: 16 May 2003

Map of lava flows on south coastal part of Kilauea Volcano as of 16 May 2003

Map shows lava flows erupted during 1983-present activity of Pu`u `O`o and Kupaianaha (see large map). Red colors, both dark and light, denote Mother's Day flow, which began erupting on May 12, 2002 and continues to the present. The darkest color represents flows active since January 21, 2003.

Most recent--and ongoing--activity has produced two flows, one along western edge of flow field and one slightly farther east. Kohola flow, along western margin, entered sea late on Valentine's Day to form short-lived Kohola ocean entry. This flow shortened the road still more. Visitors now can drive to Holei Sea Arch, 1.1 km from Kohola flow, and walk to see flow. Breakouts have been visible in various parts of Kohola flow, shifting from time to time across width and length of flow.

Other dark red flow is main active part of Mother's Day flow. Fed by breakouts from lava tube in main Mother's Day flow, it advanced along eastern margin of main flow and down Pulama pali and Paliuli. Western of two forks below Paliuli dripped over sea cliff at Highcastle on May 19, 2003, after map was made.

Lava from earlier, pre-January 21, 2003 Mother's Day flow (light red) reached sea at West Highcastle early on July 19, at Wilipe`a early on July 21, and at Highcastle on August 8. From near southwest base of Pu`u `O`o, Mother's Day flow passes along west side of flow field and into forest, where it started large wildfire in May that continued into late July. By June 10, Mother's Day flow had reached base of Paliuli, the steep slope and cliff below Pulama pali and just above coastal flat. At base of Paliuli, Mother's Day flow abruptly spread laterally in series of small budding flows to cover an area nearly 2 km wide, gradually moving seaward until West Highcastle and Wilipe`a lobes finally reached water and started building lava deltas. Activity at West Highcastle ended in early August, but entry began soon thereafter at Highcastle, eventually burying tiny kipuka of Chain of Craters Road. Wilipe`a entry died away slowly and had ended by mid-August. Highcastle and neighboring Highcastle Stairs entries ended on about August 23. For a time there were no active entries. Then Wilipe`a was reactivated on September 3 but stopped in December. West Highcastle likewise renewed activity on September 16-17, died away during night of September 18-19, and returned soon thereafter to continue through March 21. East arm of Mother's Day flow branched from Highcastle lobe in late October and sent three fingers into ocean at Highcastle on November 15, West Lae`apuki on November 19, and Lae`apuki on November 20. Lae`apuki entries had stopped by November 29. If this sounds like soap opera, the truth is even more confusing than the simplified version of activity given here.

 


Eruption-viewing opportunities change constantly, so refer to this page often. Those readers planning a visit to Kilauea or Mauna Loa volcanoes can get much useful information from Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park; be sure to click on the IN-DEPTH button.


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Updated: 13 September 2003 (DAS)