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Kilauea

15 February 2003

Kohola ocean entry is on its way

Cascades and lava coating of beach at Kohola ocean entry, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Sea cliff illuminated by cascade, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. General view of new Kohola ocean entry, looking east from Ka Lae`apuki, of cascades and new flow coating beach. Sea cliff is about 10 m high. Wispy glow near center right edge is from steam at water's edge. 0533.  Right. Easternmost stream falls to base of sea cliff, forming incandescent talus cone. Sea cliff is illuminated by the freely falling lava. 0540.
Rose-colored steam above ocean entry at Kohola, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Daybreak view of new entry and distant West Highcastle laze plume, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Steam generated by entry of lava into water reflects incandescence and appears reddish. 0548.  Right. View at daybreak of Kohola entry and, in center, laze plume at West Highcastle, 1.8 km away. 0627.
Breakout within flow feeding Kohola, just back from sea cliff, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Photographer viewing Kohola entry after dawn, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Breakout within flow feeding Kohola entry, steam from which rises above sea cliff in upper left. 0642.  Right. Photographer lying prone before magnificence of Kohola. 0646

16 February 2003

Lava at Kohola ocean entry

Overall night view of Kohola entry area, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Overall day view of Kohola entry area, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Rosy view of some cascades and lava flow on beach at Kohola ocean entry. Photo taken from vantage point farther west than that used for first image yesterday; that point was near site of nearest cascade. Width of covered beach is 30-50 m. 0527. Right. Photo taken from same place as image to left, but in daylight. Photographer works near point of nearest cascade in left image, which stopped flowing just after left image was taken. Photographer is at site of most of yesterday's images. 0635.
Front of Kohola ocean entry, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Detail of breakout feeding lava into water, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Most actual ocean entries are taking place at southwest end of covered beach, as this image shows. 0628.  Right. Detail of largest breakout feeding lava into water (near right of image). Flow is about 7 m long. 0636.
Photographer ignoring near flow for something better, Kohola ocean entry, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Detail of flow ignored by photographer, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Photographer on top of sea cliff engrossed in lava cascade while small flow breaks out nearby. Small surface breakouts are common in this flow above the cliff. 0644.  Right. Detail of flow ignored by photographer. 0645.
Cascade and channeled flow it feeds, Kohola ocean entry, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Another view of channeled flow on covered beach, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Cascade down sea cliff, and channeled flow it feeds across covered beach. This is what photographer in upper left image was filming. Cascade is 8-10 m high, and channeled flow reaches 20-30 m out from base of cascade. 0646  Right. Detail of channeled flow from farther west. 0651.
Westward view along sea cliff at Kohola ocean entry, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Flow on beach at east end of Kohola ocean entry, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Looking west along sea cliff at Kohola. Main cascade shown above is prominent. Cascade shown in first image today has resumed as a lava falls (left of center). Person on top of cliff gives scale. 0650. Right. East end of Kohola entry, showing lava flow sneaking eastward across black sand beach. Large image shows incandescence through steam. Person atop distant cliff gives scale. 0656.

18 February 2003

West end of Kohola ocean entry

Cascade at west end of Kohola ocean entry, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Cascade at west end of Kohola ocean entry, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Cascade and lava falls, 8 m high, over sea cliff at west end of Kohola ocean entry. Soon after this image was taken, a gush destroyed upper part of cascade, but the wound was quickly healed and the cascade-falls continued to play for more than 1.5 hr thereafter. 0523.  Right. Lower part of same falls, but one hour later. Note that drapery and a stalactite-like mass is forming like candle wax from dribble left of main falls. Note too the fan or pedestal starting to build at base of falls. 0630.
Photographer silhouetted by glow from Kohola cascade and lava falls, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Cascade above lava falls at Kohola ocean entry, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Photographer silhouetted by glow from lava falls shown above and burned out in this image. 0544. Right. Gushing lava at top of cascade. Width of upper stream, about 4 m. Lava gushed out suddenly and fed broad cascade and falls, which, over a few minutes, settled back down to the size shown above. 0554.
New cascade, nearly at photographer's feet, Kohola ocean entry, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Two cascades at Kohola ocean entry, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Lobe of lava moving along west edge of flow reached top of sea cliff and began plunging to beach below. This image was taken several minutes after the falls began. Liquid lava is 2-4 m wide. 0605. Right. Two lava falls at Kohola. Distant is that shown above. Close is that shown to left. 0621.
Bottom of main lava falls at west end of Kohola ocean entry, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Detail of base of main lava falls at Kohola ocean entry, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Bottom of main lava falls, showing pedestal of crust developed by neighboring falls. Height of falls shown, about 3 m. 0623. Right. Close-up of base of falls, showing pedestal and grotto behind. 0642.
Photographer views main Kohola lava falls at daybreak, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Three cascades in distance beyond main falls at Kohola ocean entry, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Photographer shooting main cascade and falls soon after daybreak. 0641. Right. Looking northeast along sea cliff, showing main cascade-falls and, through steam in distance, three other, smaller, cascades (visible best in large image). Small lava delta forms rightmost point below cliff. 0644.

21 February 2003

Breakouts on new lava delta

Breakout near western end of Kohola lava delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Breakout in central part of Kohola lava delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Breakout on gentle surface of Kohola lava delta, near its western end, viewed from top of sea cliff. Ocean is just to right off image. Length of flow, about 7 m. 0553.  Right. Breakout traveling down lava fan created across old sea cliff (right), slowing, and spreading out on gently sloping surface of central part of Kohola lava delta. Length of flow, about 20 m. 0626.

23 February 2003

Two views of breakout above Chain of Craters Road

Downstream view of breakout from tumulus, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
View of breakout from tumulus, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Lava is flowing out of tumulus that photographer stands on. Lava was apparently stored in tumulus before breaking out suddenly. People on tumulus could feel it cracking and shifting as it drained. Location is about 950 m above Chain of Craters Road along west margin of Kohola flow. Right. View upstream of slowing breakout, moving from under its own crust.

25 February 2003

Lava toes 175 m above Chain of Craters Road

Elongate toes of lava in Kohola flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Elongate toes of lava in Kohola flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. As saggy as sea lions flaked out on a beach, elongate toes of lava ooze from Kohola flow and enjoy sunrise. Width of view, about 6 m. 0627. Right. More elongate toes on gentle slope of breakout. Width of view, about 6 m. 0630.
Breakout in Kohola flow, with burning tree in background, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Close view of moving lava toe in Kohola flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Small breakouts move away from tumulus in old flow. Note fire in bushy tree on tumulus. Same set of lava toes as in images above. 0633. Right. Near view of flat toe moving across quite flat surface. Note that lava at moving front of toe is emerging from base and cooling as it rises. Flaming grass at front of another toe. Width of view, about 2 m. 0640.
Spreading crust on top of moving toe in Kohola flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Moving lava toe enveloping grass clump, Kohola flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Spreading crust atop toe shown in right image above. Spreading is toward lower right, as shown by shape of wrinkles, and is pulling folded crust away from "stable" crust along incandescent zone. Width of view, about 1 m. 0640. Right. Moving lava toe split by, and now enveloping, clump of grass. Note ash from burned grass on crust of toe. Width of view, about 1.5 m. 0644.
Ultra-close view of moving toe in Kohola flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Two toes meeting at burning grass clump, Kohola flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Ground-level view of lava oozing from under crust at front of small toe. Width of view, about 50 cm. 0646. Right. Two toes of lava meeting at burning grass clump, with small shrub just catching fire. Width of view, about 1.5 m. 0650.

28 February 2003

Over the top of a tumulus

Lava flowing down flank of old tumulus, Kohola flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Lava coming from interior of flow that inflated over top of old tumulus, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Lava pours down flank of 4-m-high tumulus in old (>600 year) flow. Lava comes from interior of Kohola flow, which banked against north side of tumulus, inflated over the top, and now spills down steep south side. Width of view, 6 m. 0523. Right. Fourteen minutes later, new stream pours from interior of inflated flow down flank of tumulus. View looks into mouth of inflated flow, partly evacuated by lava spilling out. Crust on inflated flow can be considered as roof of partly filled lava tube. Width of stream, about 1 m. 0537.

Video of eruptive activity

18 February 2003

Lava falls at Kohola ocean entry, Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai`i February 18, 2003; 0524. Cascade and lava falls on west edge of Kohola ocean entry, falling over sea cliff about 8 m high. Turn down your sound; lots of wind noise.

Gush of lava in cascade and falls at Kohola ocean entry, Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai`i February 18, 2003; 0549. Part of broad cascade and falls that suddenly gushed from under crust at top of sea cliff. Turn down your sound; lots of wind noise.

Base of lava falls at Kohola ocean entry, Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai`i February 18, 2003; 0602. Base of lava cascade and construction of mound on beach below sea cliff. Turn down your sound; lots of wind noise.

Maps of lava-flow field, Kilauea Volcano

Map of flows from Pu`u `O`o: 17 February 2003

Map of lava flows on south coastal part of Kilauea Volcano as of 25 November 2002

Map shows lava flows erupted during the 1983-present activity of Pu`u `O`o and Kupaianaha (see large map). The most recent--and ongoing--activity has produced the lender, dark red flow along western edge of flow field. This flow entered the sea late on Valentine's Day to form the Kohola ocean entry. Lava is actively widening the flow on February 17, and the western arm is nearing the Chain of Craters Road. Visitors now can drive to Holei Sea Arch, 1.1 km from the Kohola flow, and walk to see the new flow. The new flow is part of the Mother's Day flow, which began erupting on May 12, 2002.. Lava from the Mother's Day flow (broad red flow on west side of flow field) reached the sea at West Highcastle early on July 19, at Wilipe`a early on July 21, and at Highcastle on August 8. From near the southwest base of Pu`u `O`o, the Mother's Day flow passes along the west side of the flow field and into the forest, where it started a large wildfire in May that continued into late July. By June 10, the Mother's Day flow had reached the base of Paliuli, the steep slope and cliff below Pulama pali and just above the coastal flat. At the base of Paliuli, the Mother's Day flow abruptly spread laterally in a series of small budding flows to cover an area nearly 2 km wide, gradually moving seaward until the West Highcastle and Wilipe`a lobes finally reached the ocean and started building benches. Activity at West Highcastle ended in early August, but entry began soon thereafter at Highcastle, eventually burying tiny kipuka of the Chain of Craters Road. The Wilipe`a entry died away slowly and had ended by mid-August. Highcastle and neighboring Highcastle Stairs entries ended on about August 23. For a time there were no active entries. Then Wilipe`a was reactivated on September 3 but stopped in December. West Highcastle likewise renewed its activity on September 16-17, died away during the night of September 18-19, and returned soon thereafter to continue to time of mapping. East arm of Mother's Day flow branched from Highcastle lobe in late October and sent three fingers into ocean at Highcastle on November 15, West Lae`apuki on November 19, and Lae`apuki on November 20. The Lae`apuki entries had stopped by November 29. If this sounds like a soap opera, the truth is even more confusing than the simplified version of activity given here.

 


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Updated: 6 March 2003 (DAS)