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Kilauea

Eruption Update and Image Archive

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2 January 2003

Breakout near the coast

Breakout in east arm of Mother's Day flow 200-300 m from coast, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Breakout in east arm of Mother's Day flow 200-300 m from coast, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Breakout in east arm of Mother's Day flow 200 m from coast. Width of view, 5 m. 0554. Right. Floating plate of crust just broken off rest of flow by gushing new breakout. Width of view, 3 m. 0613.
Breakout in east arm of Mother's Day flow 200-300 m from coast, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Breakout near photographer in east arm of Mother's Day flow 200-300 m from coast, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Small stream pouring from under crust at breakout site. Width of view, 1.5 m. 0624. Right. Photographer intent on moving breakout. 0632.

5 January 2003

Highcastle highlights

Lava pours into water off front of new Highcastle delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Top of gushing cascade just southeast of Highcastle delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Over-driven lava falls reflects off water at front of new Highcastle delta. Height of free-falling falls, about 2 m. 0549. Right. Top of gushing cascade just southeast of Highcastle delta. This cascade had nearly dried up when the inflating flow behind gave way about 30 seconds before this image was taken. Width of stream, about 1.5 m. 0551.
Cascade into water just southeast of Highcastle delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Cascade into water just southeast of Highcastle delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. End of one gush in cascade shown in upper right. Upper part has developed crust and nearly stopped flowing. Lower part is draining away. Height of sea cliff, about  8 m. 0626. Right. Cascade has resumed, with lava visible most of way down sea cliff. 0640.

Overview of Highcastle, West Highcastle, and Wilipe`a deltas, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i

Looking west from above southeast end of new Highcastle lava delta. Faint glow visible at active tip of delta. In distance, laze plume rises from front of West Highcastle delta, which is broad flat point jutting seaward from draped cliff. Distant Wilipe`a delta just visible over West Highcastle delta in large view. 0643.

7 January 2003

Lava on Paliuli

Lava on and just above Paliuli, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Narrow channel of lava in cascade on face of Paliuli, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Overview of part of Paliuli, showing cascade featured in following images in context with broad, partly incandescent flow at brink of pali. More incandescence in this wide flow occurs left of image. Fume high on Pulama pali comes from tube system. Faint incandescence near edge of flow field along right side of image is in east arm of Mother's Day flow above Paliuli. Height of Paliuli here is about 15 m. 0641. Right. Narrow stream pouring down Paliuli in channel. This streams ends in sluggish rubble and toes shown in following images and in video clips for this date. Length of stream in image is about 20 m. 0545.
Lava toe near end of channel on Paliuli, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Lava toe near end of channel on Paliuli, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Lava gushes from under crust near end of channel shown above. Width of view, 50-75 cm. 0535. Right. Bulging toe, with stretched and deformed bubbles, near end of channel shown above. Width of view, 50-75 cm. 0536.
Sluggish lava near end of channel on Paliuli, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Mostly crusted, slabby front of channeled flow on Paliuli, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Lava oozing from inside mostly crusted front of channeled stream shown above. Width of view, 50-75 cm. 0538. Right. Slabby front of stream shown above. Lava pushes plates of crust to advance flow front. Width of view, 2-3 m. 0603.

8 January 2003

Star light, star bright

Incandescent spots in flow between Pulama pali and Paliuli, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i

Mozart wrote 12 piano variations on "Twinkle, Twinkle Little Star." He could have had a field day with the scene this morning, the hundreds of incandescent spots resembling a close-up of the Milky Way. This view shows some--not all--of the sparkling area between the base of Pulama pali and Paliuli. 0505.

9 January 2003

Trickle on Paliuli

Lava trickles down west edge of active flow on Paliuli, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Channeled lava stream on Paliuli, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Trickle of lava has built new fan from top to bottom of 12-m-high Paliuli, near west edge of Mother's Day flow. 0649. Right. Close-up of lowest segment of lava trickle, feeding sluggish flow on flat below pali. 0625.

10 January 2003

Paliuli in the afternoon

Trickles on Paliuli, feeding flow in foreground, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Lava at front of flow fed by Paliuli trickles, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Flow in foreground is fed by trickles of lava on Paliuli. Height of Paliuli, about 10 m. 1744. Right. Lava breaking out from under crust at front of flow fed by trickles. Width of view, about 70 cm. 1702.
Close-up of lava toe at front of flow fed by Paliuli trickles, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Close-up of lava toe at front of flow fed by Paliuli trickles, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Close view of budding toe from front of flow 100 m from base of Paliuli. Width of view, 40 cm. 1802. Right. Similar view of adjacent toe. Width of view, about 40 cm. 1802.
Lava at front of flow fed by Paliuli trickles, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Sunset view of lava at front of flow fed by Paliuli trickles, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Bulbous toe advancing front of flow above. Width of view, about 50 cm. 1744. Right. Lava breaking out from under crust at sunset. 1752.

14 January 2003

Flow front seaward of Paliuli

Flow above and on Paliuli as setting for following images, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Small gush at edge of inflating flow 440 m seaward of Paliuli, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Lava above and on Paliuli. This sets scene for next images, most of which were taken at front of flow on coastal flat. 0637. Right. Small gush from edge of inflating flow 440 m seaward of Paliuli. Width of view, about 2 m. 0528.
Sacks of lava along edge of inflating flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Spreading toe along inflating flow 400 m seaward of Paliuli, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Several toes in various states of formation along edge of inflating flow 440 m seaward of Paliuli. Width of view, 2-3 m. 0534. Right. Spreading toe along same margin. Width of view, about 1.5 m. 0552.
Small toes moving toward one another, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Low-level view of spreading toes, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Meeting of the toes along edge of flow. Width of view, about 1.5 m. 0556. Right. Low-level view of languid toes spreading across flat at front of flow. Width of view, 3-4 m. 0643.
Ground-level view of small toes, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Wrinkled surface of moving toe, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Ground-level view of moving toes. Width of view, 1-2 m. 0646. Right. Crust on moving toe becoming wrinkled in transit from left to right. Width of view, about 1 m. 0649.
Narrow front of flow 440 m from Paliuli, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Multiple toes and other small breakouts along edge of flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Front of flow leaving broad depression that lava had to fill before flow could advance farther. Person for scale in upper left quarter of image. 0651. Right. Lava breaks out from flow leaving filled basin. Individual breakouts are 1-2 m across. 0656.
Laze plume from West Highcastle in predawn light, with lava in foreground, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
West Highcastle plume of laze backlit by rising sun, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. West Highcastle laze plume, blowing onshore in kona wind, silhouetted against predawn sky, with small active toes in foreground. 0626.  Right. West Highcastle laze plume backlit by rising sun. 0705.

17 January 2003

From Pu`u `O`o to coast

Puka Nui and south side of Pu`u `O`o from air, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Cookie Monster skylight and cone, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Aerial view of Puka Nui and south side of Pu`u `O`o. Puka Nui is large collapse crater on south flank of Pu`u `O`o. Near fume on left side of image is from Mother's Day lava tube. Right. Cookie Monster skylight and associated hornito, along Mother's Day lava tube below Pu`u `O`o.
Large rocks overturned by methane explosion along margin of Mother's Day flow above Pulama pali, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Light-toned active lava flow on coastal flat, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Evidence of unusually large methane explosion along edge of Mother's Day flow above Pulama pali. GPS unit on rock gives scale. Rocks have been broken and overturned by explosion. Right. Light-toned active lava flow on coastal flat below Paliuli (dark cliff crossing field of view). Images below were taken at tip of western (left) lobe. Tips of broad eastern (right) lobe are about 800 m from Paliuli.

Wrinkles form as skin ages

Setting of surface flow on coastal flat relative to Paliuli and Pulama pali, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Small breakout at front of flow lobe on coastal flat, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Edge of flow on coastal flat. Fume comes from main feeding lava tube just above Paliuli (steep area) and on gentle slope just below Pulama pali. Pulama pali is high area behind Paliuli. This general area is site of all images today. 0701. Right. Small breakout from edge of flow. Note coarse wrinkles, some folded, on crust that formed several tens of seconds ago. 0716.
Skin of gush becoming wrinkled even while incandescent, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Narrow breakout with wrinkling skin, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Gush of lava broke from under crust of advancing flow and moved a few meters into view. Note incandescent wrinkles and folds on thin skin floating on lava. Width of view, about 2.5 m. 0537. Right. Narrow stream of lava with wrinkled crust, flowing from right to left. Width of view, about 2 m. 0604.
Wrinkled skin on flacid toe, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Lava pouring from under crust and wrinkling along the way, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Flat toe about 1 m wide abutting an obstacle and folding accordingly. 0657. Right. Lava pouring from under crust, cooling en route, and forming crust that wrinkles as velocity slows. Width of view, 2-3 m. 0707.
Lava carrying wrinkled crust drops into crack, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Detail of wrinkles on crust of toe falling into crack, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Two breakouts pour into crack in underlying flow. Lava falls from sack-like wrinkled toe. Each breakout is about 1.5 m wide. 0708. Right. Deep wrinkles in crust on toe falling into crack. Width of view, 75 cm. 0711.

19 January 2003

Morning after Full Wolf Moon

Small breakout sends root into crack, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Thin toe flows in small sheet flood, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Lava breaks out of crust on  moving toe and sends feeler or root into crack below. Location is about halfway between Paliuli and West Highcastle, on coastal flat. Width of view, about 75 cm. 0604. Right. Flat, thin gush moves rapidly from breakout point just right of view. Length of gush, about 1 m. Next images shows closer view of crust on this gush. 0606.
Wrinkled crust on thin gushing toe, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Wolf Moon, one day after full, oversees breakouts on coastal flat, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Wrinkled, incandescent crust on thin gushing toe shown in right image above. Note concave shape of wrinkles, indicating movement from right to left. Width of view, about 50 cm. 0607. Right. Wolf Moon, one day after full, overlooks front of active lobe on coastal flat, about halfway between Paliuli and West Highcastle. 0624.

20 January 2003

Flowing out of sight

Lava flows from surface into older inflation cave or tube, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Lava flows from surface into older inflation cave or tube, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Lava commonly flows from the surface into preexisting cracks and cavities made during earlier periods of flow emplacement and inflation. Generally the lava cools quickly underground against the cool rock and consequently doesn't advance far. Often, however, reheating of the older rock as far as 20-30 m downstream from the active surface flow makes the ground surface too hot to touch and turns the sides of cracks incandescent. In this image, surface lava is flowing underground, into an inflation cave (tube) formed last summer. Site is at the front of the western lobe on the coastal flat, about 1.4 km from the ranger hut at the end of Chain of Craters Road. Flash used to show details of dark inflation feature. 0548.  Right. Same scene 5 minutes later, showing more lava flowing within inflation cave. 0553.

22 January 2003

New breakouts high on Mother's Day tube

Upper breakouts along Mother's Day tube system, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Lower breakouts along Mother's Day tube system, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Looking approximately westward across uppermost breakouts along Mother's Day tube system. Breakout site nearest camera is from Cookie Monster skylight (RIP). Second breakout comes from just northwest of Cookie Monster. Third breakout (upper left) comes from big bend in tube. Breakouts are shiny appearing, in contrast to the dull older flows. In upper right is tephra-covered area between Pu`u `O`o and Napau Crater. 1117. Right. Looking farther down Mother's Day tube system. Nearest shiny mass is breakout at bend of tube (upper left in image to left). In distance are two tiny breakouts, which were active in morning but had stopped by afternoon. 1113.
Upper two breakouts along Mother's Day tube system, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Closer view of Cookie Monster breakout site, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Looking approximately north at breakout from site of Cookie Monster skylight and adjacent breakout just to northwest (toward left side of image. 1118. Right. Closer view of Cookie Monster breakout site. 1122.

31 January 2003

Hornitos and "carlitos"

Son of Cookie Monster skylight and hornito, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Field of carlitos (informal term for tiny hornitos), with VLF training camp in background, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. New skylight and hornito developed about where former Cookie Monster once reigned. "Son of Cookie Monster" has been built in past week, following the surge in surface activity on January 21-22. Right. Looking across field of "carlitos," informal term for small hornitos, toward VLF training camp, where new workers are learning how to measure flux in lava tube using Very Low Frequency radio receiver.
Small hornitos (carlitos) along upper Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Small hornitos (carlitos) along upper Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Two views of tiny hornitos, or "carlitos," in area of upper-right image. Note thin glass filaments and points, formed by chilling of gassy lava spit from skylight. Discoloring is from sulfur and other minerals deposited by gas, as well as minerals formed by chemical alteration of glass by hot vapor. Carlitos form in dangerous areas, where roof on lava tube is thin. Solitary glove reminds us of this danger.

Video of eruptive activity

7 January 2003

Channeled cascade on Paliuli, Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai`i January 7, 2003; 0533. Channeled cascade on Paliuli. Other videos on this day focus on front of this cascade. Wind noise in this and other clips is obvious, but listen for sounds of pieces of crust scraping against one another or across ground. For scale, flow front in all clips is 1-1.5 m high.

Channeled cascade on Paliuli, Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai`i January 7, 2003; 0536. Fluid lava leaks from inside crusted front of cascade.

Channeled cascade on Paliuli, Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai`i January 7, 2003; 0540. Breaking and tumbling crust on slabby flow front.

Channeled cascade on Paliuli, Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai`i January 7, 2003; 0601. More disruption of slabby flow front.

Channeled cascade on Paliuli, Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai`i January 7, 2003; 0605. More disruption of slabby flow front.

14 January 2003

Lava toes 440 m seaward of Paliuli in Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai`i January 14, 2003; 0526. Rapidly flowing single toe of lava at front of flow 440 m seaward of Paliuli. Other videos on this day focus on similar toes. Sound was turned off during the imaging. For scale, flowing lava in all clips is 1-3 m wide.

Lava toes 440 m seaward of Paliuli in Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai`i January 14, 2003; 0552. Sheet of lava pouring from inflating flow. Note wrinkling, moving crust.

Lava toes 440 m seaward of Paliuli in Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai`i January 14, 2003; 0553. Same sheet of lava pouring from inflating flow but seen from different angle.

Lava toes 440 m seaward of Paliuli in Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai`i January 14, 2003; 0559. Single toe in action. Note concentric wrinkes forming at bottom of view.

Lava toes 440 m seaward of Paliuli in Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai`i January 14, 2003; 0649. Low-angle view of fluid toe spreading out. Note moving dark crust on distant part of toe.

17 January 2003

Lava breakouts and wrinkles on coastal flat below Paliuli, Kilauea volcano, Hawai`i January 17, 2003; 0549. Rushing toe of lava that has just broken out from front of one active lobe of flow on coastal flat seaward of Paliuli. Toe is about 50 cm wide. Note how crust is "scrunched" at bottom of minicascade, resulting in wrinkles. Other videos on this day show breakouts in same area. In all videos, wind noise may be bothersome.

Lava breakouts and wrinkles on coastal flat below Paliuli, Kilauea volcano, Hawai`i January 17, 2003; 0636. Small gush is on crest of small divide and starts flowing down right side as well as left. Stream is about 1 m wide.

Lava breakouts and wrinkles on coastal flat below Paliuli, Kilauea volcano, Hawai`i January 17, 2003; 0653. Tear begins to develop in crust on stage-left side of flow. Lava eventually pours from tear. Stream is 0.75-1 m wide.

Lava breakouts and wrinkles on coastal flat below Paliuli, Kilauea volcano, Hawai`i January 17, 2003; 0656. Video shows wrinkling of thin crust at bottom of gentle slope. Note the concave-upstream shape of the wrinkles. Stream is about 1 m wide.

Lava breakouts and wrinkles on coastal flat below Paliuli, Kilauea volcano, Hawai`i January 17, 2003; 0657. Lava runs from under crust along edge of inflating flow. Flakes of crust, heated by the emerging lava, spall off and fall onto surface of lava. Width of view, about 75 cm.

Lava breakouts and wrinkles on coastal flat below Paliuli, Kilauea volcano, Hawai`i January 17, 2003; 0706. Two streams break from under inflating flow. Note how crust forms on closer stream and becomes wrinkled where lava runs into barrier. Each stream is about 3 m long.

Lava breakouts and wrinkles on coastal flat below Paliuli, Kilauea volcano, Hawai`i January 17, 2003; 0712. Lava slowly rafts plate of crust downstream. Width of plate of crust, about 1 m.

Maps of lava-flow field, Kilauea Volcano

Map of flows from Pu`u `O`o: 25 November 2002

Map of lava flows on south coastal part of Kilauea Volcano as of 25 November 2002

Map shows lava flows erupted during the 1983-present activity of Pu`u `O`o and Kupaianaha (see large map). Lava from the Mother's Day flow (red flow on west side of flow field) reached the sea at West Highcastle early on July 19, at Wilipe`a early on July 21, and at Highcastle on August 8. From near the southwest base of Pu`u `O`o, the Mother's Day flow passes along the west side of the flow field and into the forest, where it started a large wildfire in May that continued into late July. By June 10, the Mother's Day flow had reached the base of Paliuli, the steep slope and cliff below Pulama pali and just above the coastal flat. At the base of Paliuli, the Mother's Day flow abruptly spread laterally in a series of small budding flows to cover an area nearly 2 km wide, gradually moving seaward until the West Highcastle and Wilipe`a lobes finally reached the ocean and started building benches. Activity at West Highcastle ended in early August, but entry began soon thereafter at Highcastle, eventually burying tiny kipuka of the Chain of Craters Road. The Wilipe`a entry died away slowly and had ended by mid-August. Highcastle and neighboring Highcastle Stairs entries ended on about August 23. For a time there were no active entries. Then Wilipe`a was reactivated on September 3 and remains active as of November 25. West Highcastle likewise renewed its activity on September 16-17, died away during the night of September 18-19, and returned soon thereafter to continue to time of mapping. East arm of Mother's Day flow branched from Highcastle lobe in late October and sent three fingers into ocean at Highcastle on November 15, West Lae`apuki on November 19, and Lae`apuki on November 20. Of these, only Lae`apuki (the eastern of the two entries labeled "Lae`apuki" on map) was still active on November 25, but it had stopped by November 29.

 


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Updated: 10 February 2003 (DAS)