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Kilauea

5 July 2003

Breakout mania

Small breakout before dawn, 150 m inland from Highcastle lava delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Tumulus from which large breakout took place, 150 m inland from Highcastle lava delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Small oozing breakout before dawn from southeast base of tumulus shown in right image. About 150 m inland from old sea cliff at Highcastle. Width of view, about 1 m. 0538. Right. Looking west at sunup toward tumulus that fed all lava in images taken today. Note typical medial crack at top of tumulus. Small breakout in left image is leftmost incandescent area in image (lower left). All subsequent images are of breakout that came from area in center of image. 0545.
Breakout from tumulus 150 m inland from Highcastle lava delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Breakout from tumulus 150 m inland from Highcastle lava delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. After 5 minutes of groaning, scraping, and cracking sounds, area at east base of tumulus above gradually opened. First lava came from narrow cracks. Then it oozed up already open cracks. Finally, with a loud tearing sound, a part of the crust gave way and lava rushed onto surface. This image was taken about 30 seconds after the breakout started. Stream is 2-3 m long. 0604. Right. View of source area for breakout to left. Width of moving lava, about 3 m. 0606.
Breakout from tumulus 150 m inland from Highcastle lava delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Breakout from tumulus 150 m inland from Highcastle lava delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Breakout pours down slope and cascades over steep pitches, rafting crust along. Crust tears as it plunges into depression. Width of moving lava, about 3 m. See 0608 video below. 0607:33. Right. Same area as in left image, but depression is filling and breakout front is more continuous. Width, about 3 m. 0609:14.
Breakout from tumulus 150 m inland from Highcastle lava delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Breakout from tumulus 150 m inland from Highcastle lava delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Same area as in right image above, but 1 minute later and from slightly cooler location. Crust now coats entire stream into depression, but lava is breaking out from under crust and continuing its travel downward. Width of entire stream, about 3 m. See 0610 video below. 0610:15. Right. Close up of lava dripping from wrinkled crust that developed on breakout in left image. Width of view, about 1 m. 0610:47.
Breakout from tumulus 150 m inland from Highcastle lava delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Breakout from tumulus 150 m inland from Highcastle lava delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Stream shown above has filled depression and is continuing down broad base of tumulus. Filled depression is almost exactly in middle of image, along far side of stream. Length of visible stream, about 5-6 m. 0612. Right. Three minutes later, lava is continuing to pour from under crust and move downward. Plates of crust tear from main cover and swirl down steep cascade. Width of moving lava, about 2 m. 0615.
Breakout from tumulus 150 m inland from Highcastle lava delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Breakout from tumulus 150 m inland from Highcastle lava delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Ten minutes later, stream has moved some 8-10 m farther and shows no sign of letting up. Width of stream, about 1.5-2 m. 0625. Right. Upended slab of crust jammed against solid crust watches rest of world go by. Slab is 50-60 cm high. 0636.
Breakout from tumulus 150 m inland from Highcastle lava delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Breakout from tumulus 150 m inland from Highcastle lava delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. At snout of still-moving breakout, lava reaches steep slope and gushes from under crust. Width of moving lava, about 1 m. 0639:31.  Right. Most lava has reached base of steep pitch and, only 32 seconds later, has developed noticeable crust that is wrinkling and already breaking. 0640:03.

6 July 2003

Lava on Pulama pali

Three lobes--Kohola, west-side, and east-side--of Mother's Day flow on Pulama pali, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
West-side and east-side lobes of Mother's Day flow on Pulama pali, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Predawn view of three surface lobes of lava on Pulama pali. Near left edge is Kohola arm of Mother's Day flow. Dead center is west-side lobe of main Mother's Day flow. Just left of center, and most prominent, are three clusters of surface lava in east-side lobe. Kohola angles down to left (west); other two angle down to right (east). Near left edge are two incandescent specks on gentle slope above Paliuli. 0512. Right. Image from same vantage point but at higher magnification, showing part of west-side lobe and all of east-side lobe. 0516.

10 July 2003

Kohola forging new path

Lava flowing across slightly older `a`a crust, new branch of Kohola arm of Mother's Day flow just above Paliuli, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Lava flowing across slightly older `a`a crust, new branch of Kohola arm of Mother's Day flow just above Paliuli, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Channeled lava moves down moderate slope, flowing across `a`a surface formed slightly earlier. Channel is 1-2 m wide. Location is just above Paliuli. During 1730-1830 today, lava in this new branch of Kohola dropped over Paliuli. 1055. Right. Another view of channeled lava on `a`a. 1102.
Visitors watching advance of new branch of Kohola arm of Mother's Day flow just above Paliuli, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Incandescent lava in new branch of Kohola arm of Mother's Day flow just above Paliuli, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Visitors admire advancing new branch of Kohola. Flow eventually moved toward Paliuli and crossed viewing site. 1106.  Right. Incandescent lava in interior of flow with `a`a crust. 1111.

12 July 2003

Early morning lava on Pulama pali

Three lobes--Kohola, west-side, and east-side--of Mother's Day flow on Pulama pali, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
East-side lobes of Mother's Day flow on Pulama pali, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Compare these two images with those taken from same place on July 6. Note how far the Kohola has advanced. Left. Predawn view of three surface lobes of lava on Pulama pali. Near left edge is Kohola arm of Mother's Day flow. In center is barely visible west-side lobe of main Mother's Day flow. Near right edge is collection of incandescent areas in east-side lobe. Distance from Kohola to east-side lobe is about 2 km. 0521. Right. East-side lobe of main Mother's Day flow. 0525.
New branch of Kohola arm of Mother's Day flow on Pulama pali, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Front of new branch of Kohola arm of Mother's Day flow on Pulama pali, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Several channels of lava flow across solidified `a`a at about 400-500-foot elevation between Pulama pali and Paliuili. Narrow, dark `a`a below channels carried lava across Paliuli in late afternoon of July 10. 0543. Right. Higher magnification of channels on steep slope. 0540.

14 July 2003

Bastille Day at Kohola cascade

Cascade down Paliuli in Kohola arm of Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Lava flow below Paliuli, Kohola arm of Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Cascade down Paliuli in Kohola arm of Mother's Day flow. This cascade had died by 0600. Height of pali, 12-15 m. 0522. Right. View from top of Paliuli, looking at flow fed by cascade. Front of flow is at top of image. Note visitors in grassy area watching the show.0545.
Breakout below Paliuli in Kohola arm of Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Front of sluggish lava flow at base of Paliuli, Kohola arm of Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. From top of Paliuli, breakout taking place from crusted flow at foot of pali. Photographer gives scale. 0553. Right. Front of sluggish lobe at base of Paliuli, viewed from coastal flat. This is remnant of cascade, which died 10-15 minutes earlier. Incandescent front is about 3 m wide. 0611.
Front of sluggish lava flow at base of Paliuli, Kohola arm of Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Visitors watching activity on Paliuli in Kohola arm of Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. View of sluggish lobe of upper right image, in context of Paliuli. Note the vegetated pali east of active flow. The vegetation is in a kipuka about 60-80 m wide, separating a brief cascade of July 10 from this morning's activity. 0616. Right. Visitors enjoying show on and just above Paliuli. Note the streams of lava above Paliuli, one of which fed cascade earlier in morning. 0620.

21 July 2003

The Kohola works westward

Trickles down Paliuli in Kohola arm of Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Developing lava cascade west of main Kohola arm of Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Lava flowing down fan developed in past week on Paliuli. This is new western part of Kohola arm of Mother's Day flow. Lava fed from this fan--by surface flow and through tubes--has moved 530 m seaward from base of Paliuli and is still going. 0540. Right. Photographer urges on a new branch of Kohola arm, coaxing it to bottom of Paliuli some 150 m west of lava in left image. 0548.
Upper part of developing cascade down Paliuli in Kohola arm of Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Developing cascade down Paliuli, Kohola arm of Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Lava moving toward top of Paliuli in new branch of Kohola. Highest area is eastward extension of Holei Pali. 0553. Right. Looking toward dawn, with lava moving down developing gentle cascade in new branch of Kohola. 0602.
Lava in Kohola arm of Mother's Day flow dropping into crack at base of Paliuli, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Base of Paliuli coated with new lava, Kohola arm of Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Crack at base of Paliuli gobbles up lava in new branch of Kohola, completing developing of cascade. 0611. Right. Three tongues of lava pour down lowest part of Paliuli before filling crack at base and continuing down old ramp to coastal flat below. 0614.

22 July 2003

Aerial views of skylight and active flow field

Annotated aerial image of active flow field of Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Aerial image of Okita Nuevo skylight in Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Looking up active flow field, with annotations for several features commonly mentioned in updates (East-side lobe, Kohola arm, elbow, Paliuli, Holei Pali, and Pu`u `O`o.) Right. Okita Nuevo skylight, about 1 m in diameter, from air. Note fume rising from it and from another weak spot in roof of main tube supplying lava to Mother's Day flow.

23 July 2003

Lava lazily moves away from Paliuli

Lava moving slowly across flat terrain, Kohola arm of Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Small toes behind veil of grass, Kohola arm of Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Front of lazy breakout, with Paliuli behind. Recent drapery coats Paliuli, but lava in this breakout is fed by tube in isolated cascade to left of image (see last image today). 0549. Right. Budding lava about 30 cm high almost silently moving across ground. 0553.
Lava moving slowly across flat terrain, Kohola arm of Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Smoke rising from small fires along edge of Kohola arm of Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Note gray ash on crust of lava, left over from burned grass. 0555. Right. Smoke and flame from small fires along front of slow breakout. 0557.
Lava moving slowly across flat terrain, Kohola arm of Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Lava below Paliuli and Holei Pali, Kohola arm of Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Shrubbery awaits its fate as front of breakout nears. 0603. Right. Overview of breakout area, with photographer and tripod just right of center. Lava flows down Paliuli through tube from upper right--the area of developing cascade on July 21. In background is unnamed pali, apparently an eastward continuation of Holei Pali. 0604.

27 July 2003

Scenes of lava in western tongue of Kohola

Amoeboid toes in west tongue of Kohola arm of Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Lava toe behind disrupted blocks of past methane explosion, Kohola arm of Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Small, amoeboid finger of lava budding into toes. Largest incandescent toe is about 20 cm across. 0601. Right. Active flow forms background for loose blocks thrown out by past methane explosion, possibly during emplacement of nearby older part of Kohola. Vertical block just left of center is about 40 cm tall. Such large blocks remind us that some methane explosions can be BIG. 0611.
Part of active front of west tongue of Kohola arm of Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Inflating flow with loose rocks on top, Kohola arm of Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Smoothly advancing front of west tongue of Kohola. In background is Paliuli and Pulama pali. Squinting, you can see surface lava in area of fume above Paliuli. 0614. Right. Inflating west tongue of Kohola, with small breakouts. Note two clusters of stones on crust of flow. These clusters were once on the ground surface before being picked up and uplifted as the flow inflated. The stones are 2-3 cm in diameter. 0616.
Breakout soon after starting in west tongue of Kohola arm of Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Breakout about 6 minutes after starting, Kohola arm of Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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These two images were taken from same location but with different magnifications and look directions. Left. Breakout about 1 minute after starting from crack in crust of inflating flow. Tilted slab at right edge of image, just behind moving lava, is visible at top center of right image. 0619:23. Right. A little more than 5 minutes later, lava has moved toward camera about 10 m. Note how crust has formed and become wrinkled as it floats on the advancing lava. 0624:41.

31 July 2003

Kohola lava on coastal flat

Lava toe in darkness in west tongue of Kohola arm of Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Wrinkled crust on moving lava toe, Kohola arm of Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Small toe of lava developing wrinkled crust in western finger of Kohola arm. Toe is about 50 cm wide. 0517. Right. Lava debouching from front of inflating flow and burning grass. Note wrinkled crust formed where lava slows on gentle slope. Toe is about 40 cm wide. 0526.
Lava toes with burning grass and flying embers, west tongue of Kohola arm of Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Small breakout with flying embers, Kohola arm of Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Tracks of flying embers (left center) reach downwind from burning grass along edge of active breakout. The golden tracks, ephemeral though they may be, are remindful of coarse Pele's hair. 0529. Right. Stream of lava issues from inflating flow, burning grass and creating embers whose tracks look like scratches on film. Stream is about 3 m long. 0541.
Snout of small breakout, west tongue of Kohola arm of Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Lazy toes along margin of breakout, Kohola arm of Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Front of stream in right image above, sluggish and nearly stagnant. Note deeply corrugated crust Width of view, about 3 m. 0543. Right. Edge of moderately large breakout moving down gentle slope as series of interconnected toes. Active breakout is 20-30 cm thick. 0550.

Video of eruptive activity

5 July 2003

Lava pours into depression, Kilauea volcano, Hawai`i July 5, 2003; 0608. Lava pours out from under crust at front of advancing breakout. See still taken at 0607:33 today.

Lava breaks out from side of crusted flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai`i July 5, 2003; 0610. Lava emerges from under crust along side of breakout on steep slope. Listen to creaking sounds, about halfway through video, as crust flexes and breaks. See still taken at 0610:15 today.

Lava drops out of crust into depression, Kilauea volcano, Hawai`i July 5, 2003; 0619. Lava appears from under crust and drops into depression at front of advancing breakout. Width of blob of lava that appears is about 30 cm.

Dynamics at front of breakout, Kilauea volcano, Hawai`i July 5, 2003; 0622. This clip lasts 30 seconds and so is a large file, but it shows such notable dynamics at flow front that it might be worth it to some of you patient ones. The active stream is 50-75 cm wide. Note, early on, how sliding crust plows into lava.

Maps of lava-flow field, Kilauea Volcano

Map of flows from Pu`u `O`o: 16 May 2003

Map of lava flows on south coastal part of Kilauea Volcano as of 16 May 2003

Map shows lava flows erupted during 1983-present activity of Pu`u `O`o and Kupaianaha (see large map). Red colors, both dark and light, denote Mother's Day flow, which began erupting on May 12, 2002 and continues to the present. The darkest color represents flows active since January 21, 2003.

Most recent--and ongoing--activity has produced two flows, one along western edge of flow field and one slightly farther east. Kohola flow, along western margin, entered sea late on Valentine's Day to form short-lived Kohola ocean entry. This flow shortened the road still more. Visitors now can drive to Holei Sea Arch, 1.1 km from Kohola flow, and walk to see flow. Breakouts have been visible in various parts of Kohola flow, shifting from time to time across width and length of flow.

Other dark red flow is main active part of Mother's Day flow. Fed by breakouts from lava tube in main Mother's Day flow, it advanced along eastern margin of main flow and down Pulama pali and Paliuli. Western of two forks below Paliuli dripped over sea cliff at Highcastle on May 19, 2003, after map was made.

Lava from earlier, pre-January 21, 2003 Mother's Day flow (light red) reached sea at West Highcastle early on July 19, at Wilipe`a early on July 21, and at Highcastle on August 8. From near southwest base of Pu`u `O`o, Mother's Day flow passes along west side of flow field and into forest, where it started large wildfire in May that continued into late July. By June 10, Mother's Day flow had reached base of Paliuli, the steep slope and cliff below Pulama pali and just above coastal flat. At base of Paliuli, Mother's Day flow abruptly spread laterally in series of small budding flows to cover an area nearly 2 km wide, gradually moving seaward until West Highcastle and Wilipe`a lobes finally reached water and started building lava deltas. Activity at West Highcastle ended in early August, but entry began soon thereafter at Highcastle, eventually burying tiny kipuka of Chain of Craters Road. Wilipe`a entry died away slowly and had ended by mid-August. Highcastle and neighboring Highcastle Stairs entries ended on about August 23. For a time there were no active entries. Then Wilipe`a was reactivated on September 3 but stopped in December. West Highcastle likewise renewed activity on September 16-17, died away during night of September 18-19, and returned soon thereafter to continue through March 21. East arm of Mother's Day flow branched from Highcastle lobe in late October and sent three fingers into ocean at Highcastle on November 15, West Lae`apuki on November 19, and Lae`apuki on November 20. Lae`apuki entries had stopped by November 29. If this sounds like soap opera, the truth is even more confusing than the simplified version of activity given here.

 


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Updated: 3 August 2003 (DAS)