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1 June 2003

This 'n that at Highcastle

Lava gushing out at top of new, sluggish cascade at Highcastle, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Upper part of new, sluggish cascade at Highcastle, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. A minute or two after lava has broken from beneath crust and started to cascade down sea cliff at Highcastle. Crust at very top of image is point of breakout at top of cliff. Lava is gushing out, not simply oozing. Its volume is small, however, so only a weak cascade ultimately develops. Width of flowing lava, about 1.5 m. 0544. Right. Upper part of cascade is now two streams that flow around cooler crust (see left image for early version of that crust) and join below. See video. 0546.
Waning cascade with entry laze plume in background, Highcastle entry, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Waning cascade at Highcastle, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Same cascade as above, in context of Highcastle entry. Steam rises from entry point. Lava flow covers old beach and has built a narrow delta beyond. Lava flows under crust across buried beach to point of entry. 0550. Right. About 13 minutes after cascade began, it has obviously slackened in both flux and vigor. Image taken from same place as first image above but at less magnification. Width of flowing lava, about 80 cm. 0557.
Solidified arching toe of pahoehoe near Highcastle entry, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Solidified arching toe of pahoehoe near Highcastle entry, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Views of arching, solidified toe of pahoehoe in breakout just above Highcastle sea cliff. You can make up your own pet name for this stony creature. Length of toe in image, 30 cm. 0600.

4 June 2003

Highcastle lava delta and breakouts inland

Breakout and entry glow, Highcastle lava delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Lava entering ocean off front of Highcastle lava delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Looking southeast across Highcastle lava delta. Small breakout from inflating flow on surface of delta is in lower right, and glow from one of two ocean entries creates moderate plume of laze at front of delta. 0528. Right. Optical zoom of lava entering water at entry site shown in left image. A small point is being constructed by the lava at the front of the delta. 0541.
Sunrise at Highcastle lava delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Wide-angle view of Highcastle lava delta looking southwest, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Rising sun behind laze plume from ocean entry at Highcastle lava delta. 0549. Right. Wide-angle view of Highcastle lava delta looking southwest, taken from same point as first image of May 25 and last image of May 22. Compare with those images to see widening of lava delta. (Note: the other two images are not so extreme a wide angle.) 0601.
Breakout 450 m inland of Highcastle lava delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Close-up of lava toes 450 m inland of Highcastle lava delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Family of lava toes breaking out from sluggish Highcastle lobe 450 m inland from Highcastle delta. 0621. Right. Close view of two small toes moving down moderate local slope, taken from ground view. Width of moving lava, about 0.6 m. 0622.
Close-up of lava toe 450 m inland of Highcastle lava delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Channeled breakout 450 m inland of Highcastle lava delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Ground-level view of leftmost toe in right image above, but too close for comfort. Lava is dropping into small depression. Width of dropping toe, 20 cm. 0623. Right. Visitor from Chicago enjoying his last day in Hawai`i, observing channeled breakout along east margin of Highcastle lobe 450 m inland of lava delta. 0625.

5 June 2003

Upper flow field

Small hornito in West Gap Pit, Pu`u `O`o, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Dense lava breakout high on flow field, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Small hornito in West Gap Pit, west of crater of Pu`u `O`o. Hornito is about 50 cm high. 0929. Right. Tongues of lava breaking out of upper Mother's Day flow at 2300-foot elevation. This lava, which has been stored in inflating flow and has cooled slightly and lost some gas, will solidify to dense "blue pahoehoe." 1246.

6 June 2003

Aerials of Highcastle and Pu`u `O`o

Highcastle entry area, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Fuming vents in crater of Pu`u `O`o, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Aerial view looking north-northeast across Highcastle entry area. Lava delta is small, building out from beach that is now covered by new flow. To west, the Highcastle and West Highcastle areas blend into one. 1308. Right. Looking west into crater of Pu`u `O`o, showing several heavily fuming old spatter cones and other vents. 1314.

7 June 2003

Cascades over old sea cliff at Highcastle

Small cascade and surface flow it feeds on Highcastle lava delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Base of small cascade onto Highcastle lava delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Small cascade on old sea cliff at Highcastle feeds equally small surface flows on Highcastle lava delta. In background is large tumulus on defunct West Highcastle delta. 0535. Right. Base of cascade, taken from same place as left image but at higher magnification 6 minutes later. 0541.
Starting point of small cascade onto Highcastle lava delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Upper part of small cascade onto Highcastle lava delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Starting point for new cascade slightly nearer camera than cascade shown above. This cascade started 5 minutes or less before image was taken. Lava gushes from crusted hot flow at very brink of old sea cliff. Width of gush is about 1 m. 0553.  Right. Continuation of cascade in left image, only 2-3 m farther downstream. On left, lava is starting to plummet to base of cliff. Width of view, about 2.5 m. 0554.
Looking across top of cascade toward laze at ocean entries off Highcastle lava delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Cascade in early morning light, Highcastle lava delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Looking across top of cascade shown above, with laze from ocean entries in background. Image taken at approximate peak of activity. Compare with left image below, taken as lava flux is waning. 0556.  Right. Cascade shown in left image in early morning sunlight. Image taken from same place as first image this morning. 0602.
Looking across top of waning cascade toward laze at ocean entries off Highcastle lava delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Start of cascade, rapidly crusting over as flux declines, Highcastle lava delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Looking across top of cascade shown above, with laze from ocean entries in background. Image taken as lava flux is waning. Compare with left image above, taken as lava flux was at its peak. 0606.  Right. Start of same cascade as shown to left but 3 minutes later. Crust is growing from right to left from point of lava emergence (right side of image) as flux declines, and sluggish lava develops ropes where gradient slackens. Three minutes later, all lava was hidden by crust, and cascade was a mere dribble. 0609.

11 June 2003

Scenes at Highcastle on a beautiful morning

Main ocean entry at Highcastle lava delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Main ocean entry at Highcastle lava delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Looking southwest at main ocean-entry point about halfway along front of Highcastle lava delta. Note, however, that other smaller entries are also taking place. 0535. Right. Same main entry area but with digital zoom. 0535.
Breakout just starting above sea cliff at Highcastle, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Early stage of breakout above Highcastle sea cliff, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Seconds after small gushing breakout has started about 50 m upstream of top of old Highcastle sea cliff. Plate of crust surrounded by lava capped roof of small tube but finally gave way. Width of plate of crust, about 1 m. 0546:54. Right. Twenty seconds later, left prong of breakout is rapidly developing into small channeled stream. 0547:14.
Breakout above sea cliff at Highcastle, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Breakout above Highcastle sea cliff, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Twenty-more seconds later, side view of left prong of breakout shown above. Note developing wrinkles on crust as flow slows on gentler slope. Width of stream, about 80 cm. 0547:34. Right. Head-on view of left prong of breakout, 106 seconds after first image of breakout above.  Note that plate of crust  remains intact, though it has slumped a little from its original position. 0548:40.
Breakout above sea cliff at Highcastle, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Breakout above Highcastle sea cliff, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Another breakout but in same general area. This one has developed channeled flow and shows continued growth of crust downstream from point of emergence from under crust. Width of flow, about 1.3 m. 0559. Right. Same channeled breakout as shown to left, showing streaming pattern in crust. 0601.

13 June 2003

Start and finish of Mother's Day flow

Skylight near start of Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Eastern part of Highcastle lava delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Skylight in main Mother's Day tube not far below place where lava first enters the tube. Figures in distance are measuring flux of lava in tube using a VLF instrument. Right. Eastern two-thirds of Highcastle lava delta. Point on delta is main entry point for lava into water.

Video of eruptive activity

1 June 2003

Upper part of cascade over old Highcastle sea cliff, Kilauea volcano, Hawai`i June 1, 2003; 0545. Two strands of flowing lava come together to form single cascade on upper part of old sea cliff at Highcastle. Still taken at 0546 shows same scene.

7 June 2003

Gushing start of cascade over old Highcastle sea cliff, Kilauea volcano, Hawai`i June 7, 2003; 0555. Gushing start of cascade shown in image taken at 0553. Lava comes from crusted flow to right. Width of flowing lava, about 1 m.

Cascade rushing over brink of old Highcastle sea cliff, Kilauea volcano, Hawai`i June 7, 2003; 0559. Downstream from first clip about 2 m. Same as shown in image taken at 0554.

Maps of lava-flow field, Kilauea Volcano

Map of flows from Pu`u `O`o: 16 May 2003

Map of lava flows on south coastal part of Kilauea Volcano as of 16 May 2003

Map shows lava flows erupted during 1983-present activity of Pu`u `O`o and Kupaianaha (see large map). Red colors, both dark and light, denote Mother's Day flow, which began erupting on May 12, 2002 and continues to the present. The darkest color represents flows active since January 21, 2003.

Most recent--and ongoing--activity has produced two flows, one along western edge of flow field and one slightly farther east. Kohola flow, along western margin, entered sea late on Valentine's Day to form short-lived Kohola ocean entry. This flow shortened the road still more. Visitors now can drive to Holei Sea Arch, 1.1 km from Kohola flow, and walk to see flow. Breakouts have been visible in various parts of Kohola flow, shifting from time to time across width and length of flow.

Other dark red flow is main active part of Mother's Day flow. Fed by breakouts from lava tube in main Mother's Day flow, it advanced along eastern margin of main flow and down Pulama pali and Paliuli. Western of two forks below Paliuli dripped over sea cliff at Highcastle on May 19, 2003, after map was made.

Lava from earlier, pre-January 21, 2003 Mother's Day flow (light red) reached sea at West Highcastle early on July 19, at Wilipe`a early on July 21, and at Highcastle on August 8. From near southwest base of Pu`u `O`o, Mother's Day flow passes along west side of flow field and into forest, where it started large wildfire in May that continued into late July. By June 10, Mother's Day flow had reached base of Paliuli, the steep slope and cliff below Pulama pali and just above coastal flat. At base of Paliuli, Mother's Day flow abruptly spread laterally in series of small budding flows to cover an area nearly 2 km wide, gradually moving seaward until West Highcastle and Wilipe`a lobes finally reached water and started building lava deltas. Activity at West Highcastle ended in early August, but entry began soon thereafter at Highcastle, eventually burying tiny kipuka of Chain of Craters Road. Wilipe`a entry died away slowly and had ended by mid-August. Highcastle and neighboring Highcastle Stairs entries ended on about August 23. For a time there were no active entries. Then Wilipe`a was reactivated on September 3 but stopped in December. West Highcastle likewise renewed activity on September 16-17, died away during night of September 18-19, and returned soon thereafter to continue through March 21. East arm of Mother's Day flow branched from Highcastle lobe in late October and sent three fingers into ocean at Highcastle on November 15, West Lae`apuki on November 19, and Lae`apuki on November 20. Lae`apuki entries had stopped by November 29. If this sounds like soap opera, the truth is even more confusing than the simplified version of activity given here.

 


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Updated: 22 June 2003 (DAS)