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1 May 2003

May Day at Kohola breakouts

Breakout in Kohola arm of Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Detail of front of breakout in Kohola arm of Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Small breakout from inflating flow moves downslope, slowing where gradient decreases at front of stream. Width of front, about 1.5 m. 0543:51. Right. Close-up of gnarly front of stream 26 seconds later, crumpled by compression as lava slows. 0544:17.
Sunrise greets couple watching Kohola arm of Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Detail of lava overriding itself at front of breakout in Kohola arm of Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Couple enjoys Kohola breakout at sunrise. 0554. Right. Front of breakout, slowing as it meets flat surface and developing large-scale wrinkles by overriding slower lava. Width of view, about 2 m. 0558.
Visitors in shorts watch breakout in Kohola arm of Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Visitors enjoy breakout in Kohola arm of Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Visitors watch breakout. Shorts are not recommended; a slip on the glassy lava flow can leave legs scarred for life. Flashlights in foreground are de rigueur for anyone venturing to area near darkness. 0559. Right. Three well attired visitors enjoy breakout soon after sunup. 0608.

3 May 2003

Saturday morning at the lava

Lava stream in Kohola arm of Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Ground-level view of advancing lava at front of breakout in Kohola arm of Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Stream of lava pours from inflating tumulus (left of image) near end of park trail. Visitor in background seems oblivious to events just out of sight. 0543. Right. Ground-level view of front of same stream, spreading out on flat between tumuli. Note slight reflection of incandescence on shiny surface in foreground. Width of incandescent lava, about 2 m. 0545.
Toe at front of breakout in Kohola arm of Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Narrow breakout in Kohola arm of Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Toe forming on flat surface from already inflating front of same stream as that shown above. Width of toe, about 1 m. 0547. Right. Entire stream shown in previous images, looking upstream. Previous images were of left bank of stream on flat where stream is broadest. Now front of stream is pouring into crack on surface of older part of flow. Width of crack, about 50 cm. 0550.

9 May 2003

Tiny hornitos at Son of Cookie Monster

Tiny hornitos forming at Son of Cookie Monster skylight on Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Gas-sampling tube englufed in growing hornito at Son of Cookie Monster skylight on Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Tiny hornitos growing at Son of Cookie Monster skylight near vent for Mother's Day flow. Ceramic tube previously used to sample gas from skylight has outer diameter of 3 cm. Skylight was open two weeks ago, when lava sample was obtained, but was roofed over last week. Now, small spattering vents are building tiny hornitos, affectionately termed carlitos for a former HVO staff member, on the roof of skylight.  Right. Closer view of most active carlito shows ceramic gas-sampling tube encased in oozed lava. Though problematic if tube can be used to sample gas again--it might be plugged or too hot for rubber stopper needed while sampling, we'll try.

16 May 2003

Breakouts in Kohola under Full Flower Moon

Breakout in Kohola arm of Mother's Day flow, with pali as background, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Breakout under dawning sky, Kohola arm of Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Small breakouts near western margin of Kohola arm of Mother's Day flow, about 550 m from Paliuli. In background is fume from main Mother's Day flow on Pulama pali. 0544. Right. Breakout area under dawning sky. 0536.
Narrow streaming breakout in Kohola arm of Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Close-up of twisting, folding crust on breakout in Kohola arm of Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Streaming breakout on steep slope near margin of Kohola in same area as above. Stream is about 1 m wide. 0550. Right. Close-up of twisting, folding crust forming on surface of stream similar to that to left. Slightly blurred owing to heat shimmer. Width of image, about 40 cm. 0532.
Lava entering crack in Kohola arm of Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Front of breakout on steep slope in Kohola arm of Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Snout of small breakout rapidly descending steep slope and oozing into crack. Folds develop as lava slows on gentler slope. Width of stream, about 1 m. 0552. Right. Lava moving down steep slope into crack hidden from view. Note stretched bubbles as well as developing wrinkles in incipient crust. Width of incandescent lava, about 1 m. 0553.
Incandescent crack and small skylight near Son of Cookie Monster skylight, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Aerial view of channeled `a`a flow at 800-foot elevtion on Pulama pali, main Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Incandescent crack and tiny skylight near Upper Son of Cookie Monster skylight on southwest apron of Pu`u `O`o. Note glove used during sampling of lava from skylight. 0827. Right. View from helicopter of channeled `a`a flow at about the 800-foot elevation on Pulama pali. This is part of main Mother's Day flow, east of Kohola arm of the flow. Length of `a`a, about 100 m. 1106.

17 May 2003

Gnarly lava in the Kohola

Dawn sky overlooks tiny breakout in Kohola arm of Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Relatively cool lava in Kohola arm of Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Daybreak overshadows tiny breakout in Kohola arm of Mother's Day flow about 550 m from Paliuli. 0533. Right. Sluggish breakout with thick, wrinkling crust in same area as shown in left image. Width of lava, about 1 m. 0537.
Gnarly crusted lava in Kohola arm of Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Gnarly crusted lava in Kohola arm of Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Thick, twisting crust gives gnarly appearance to sluggish breakout. Such crust, often called sharkskin, forms on relatively cool lava that has been stored in inflating flow before seeing daylight. Width of view, about 1.5 m. 0538. Right. Bulging, gnarly breakout, with lava barely able to move, oozes from crack in crust. Width of view, about 2 m. 0540.

19 May 2003

No lava? Why not a sunrise instead?

Daybreak over Kohola arm of Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Daybreak over Kohola arm of Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Sunrise over Kohola arm of Mother's Day flow. No lava visible in the Kohola, but a gorgeous sunrise substitutes. 0536. Right. Same scene with wider view. 0537.

21 May 2003

New ocean entry at Highcastle

Lava in Mother's Day flow spreads across Highcastle beach, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Lava in Mother's Day flow spreads across Highcastle beach, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Looking northeast across black sand beach of Highcastle, becoming covered by lava in Highcastle lobe of Mother's Day flow. Many active breakouts are visible as lava slowly moves across black sand, which was made by lava entering water in past year. 0527. Right. One tongue of lava on beach just entering surf. 0532.
Lava at point of breakout at top of Highcastle sea cliff, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Lava trickles down Highcastle sea cliff in Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Satiny surface of lava welling from small tube at top of Highcastle sea cliff. This lava started to trickle down cliff (right view) about 2 minutes later. Width of view, about 2 m. 0536. Right. Lava descending Highcastle sea cliff, fed by breakout in left image. 0541.
Lava just starting down Highcastle sea cliff, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Lava breakout just above Highcastle sea cliff in Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Narrow channel of lava at brink of sea cliff at Highcastle. Black sand beach is below cliff, becoming covered with lava. 0550. Right. Breakout 8 m inland of sea cliff. Width of stream, about 0.8 m. 0555.
Lava on beach below Highcastle sea cliff, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Lava entering water off beach below Highcastle sea cliff in Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Looking southwest along Highcastle beach. West Highcastle lava delta, with large tumulus forming skyline, in distance. Note that lava covering beach abuts against lava delta. Narrow trickles of lava on 10-m-high sea cliff to right. 0600. Right. Crashing surf has lava in its sights. 0603.

22 May 2003

Lava on Highcastle beach

New flow on Highcastle beach barely incandescent at dawn, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Lava at front of flow on Highcastle beach, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Lava flow on Highcastle beach is so sluggish and crusted that it has only a few incandescent points, barely visible in lower left in this dawn show. 0532. Right. Lava at front of beach, thickening and trying to start lava delta into water. 0557.
Lava at front of flow on Highcastle beach, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Trickles of lava onto now-covered Highcastle beach, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. New tip of lava flow on Highcastle beach, breaking out and trying, like its neighbor to west (shown above right), to form delta. 0600. Right. Looking southwest across lava-covered Highcastle beach. Compare with next-to-last image in yesterday's album. Person gives scale on top of sea cliff just beyond lava trickle, which feeds small surface flow. West Highcastle and its large tumulus in background. 0602.

23 May 2003

Lava at, near, and far from Highcastle

Steam rises from entries at front of beach-covering flow, Highcastle area, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Glow from one entry cluster on Highcastle beach, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Steam and glow indicate three main places where lava is entering ocean off front of new beach-covering flow at Highcastle. 0524. Right. Same area that glows in left image. Each entry cluster waxes and wanes unpredictably. This one, the westernmost, dominated for a few minutes before losing luster and giving way to the easternmost cluster. 0526.
Pahoehoe toe in southwest arm of Highcastle lobe, Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Pahoehoe toe in southwest arm of Highcastle lobe, Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Lava toe glistens in sunlight 520 m inland from inactive West Highcastle lava delta. Lava is in southwestern arm of Highcastle lobe--the lobe that feeds the Highcastle beach activity. Width of toe, 50 cm. 0604. Right. Another toe in same area. Note flake picked up from underlying surface and hanging on front of toe, just right of vertical crease in center of image. Width of toe, about 75 cm. 0605.
Pahoehoe toe in southwest arm of Highcastle lobe, Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Pahoehoe toe in southwest arm of Highcastle lobe, Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Lava toes in same area, well lighted by sun. Youngest toe is abutting against and flowing around right end of slightly older toe. Broadband viewers can see development of these toes in video below. Width of view, about 1.5 m. 0607. Right. Same two toes as in left image, shown in context with oozing lava farther upstream. 0608.
Aerial view of new Highcastle entry, Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Log burned by lava, with incandescent mold, Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Aerial view of steaming Highcastle entry, adjacent to much larger West Highcastle lava delta (lower left), currently inactive. Light gray Highcastle lobe of Mother's Day flow visible from sea cliff inland to and above Paliuli, prominent low scarp near top of image. 0921. Right. Long-dead log overrun by lava along eastern margin of flow field above Pulama pali. Log has burned away where covered by lava. 1158.
Cookie Monster Crack Skylight near head of Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Small hornitos (carlitos) near Cookie Monster Crack Skylight, Mother's Day flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Narrow skylight, widened somewhat from its early form (see image taken on May 16) and now known as Cookie Monster Crack Skylight. Lava was sampled through this skylight, from a depth of 2.5 m. This area is becoming increasingly treacherous. 1011. Right. Small hornitos (carlitos), encrusted with sublimates, near Cookie Monster Crack Skylight. Each hornito is several tens of centimeters high.

25 May 2003

Looking west at lava-covered Highcastle beach

Lava-covered Highcastle beach looking west, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Breakout in flow covering Highcastle beach, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Looking west across lava flow covering Highcastle beach. Laze rises from entry points along front of flow, which is building new land into water beyond former beach. Compare with last image of May 22 to recognize seaward growth of flow. West Highcastle lava delta, with broad, high tumulus, in background. Person silhouetted against water near left edge of image gives scale. 0629. Right. Breakout on surface of flow covering beach. People above sea cliff, and lone person on flow near breakout, give scale. Note drapery on old sea cliff, some dating from this event and some formed by early short-lived flows. 0626.
Lava entering water at front of flow covering Highcastle beach, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Lava entering water at front of flow covering Highcastle beach, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Optically zoomed view of lava at front of seaward-growing flow. Height of lava cascade, about 3-4 m. 0279. Right. Another optically zoomed view of more distant entry, with several dribbles falling vertically into surf zone. Height of falls, about 3-4 m. 0290.

29 May 2003

Breakouts near Highcastle entry area

Weak glow at Highcastle ocean-entry point dwarfed by sunrise, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Height of sunrise color over Highcastle entry area, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Early sunrise dwarfs small glow from ocean entry at Highcastle. 0526. Right. Maximum intensity of sunrise. Glow at entry point now diminished and replaced by low cloud of laze. 0529.
Lava sweeping from breakout point in Highcastle lobe, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Worm's-eye view of advancing lava in Highcastle lobe, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Lava flows from breakout point near right side of image and sweeps around bend, developing a wrinkled crust near left side of image. Width of image, 3 m. This and subsequent images are about 50 m inland of top of sea cliff at Highcastle entry. 0540. Right. Worm's-eye view of advancing breakout. This is front of breakout shown to left. Width of active front, 1.5 m. 0541.
Laterally spreading breakout front, tearing thin crust, in Highcastle lobe, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Lava dropping into depression in Highcastle lobe, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. This breakout is spreading to both left and right, tearing thin crust apart. Breakout was advancing rapidly toward camera, too. See first two videos taken today for action. Width of image, about 1 m. 0545. Right. Another breakout drops into depression between two older pahoehoe toes. Widest part of incandescence, about 0.8 m. 0555.
Close view of lava in Highcastle lobe, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Gushing breakout, with one large stretched bubble, Highcastle lobe, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Close (and hot!) view of lava. Note stretched and torn slivers of crust, small bubbles, and sagging lines that eventually developed into wrinkled crust. Width of view, 40 cm. 0559. Right. Lava gushing from under crust along front of Highcastle lobe. Note large, oval bubble at top of right toe. See last two videos taken today for further development of this gush. Width of view, 1 m. 0603.
Twisted crust forming pinnacle on moving breakout in Highcastle lobe, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Three little guys headed for home, Highcastle lobe, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Crust on surface of breakout has been raised to form pinnacle 50-75 cm high. This pinnacle slowly collapsed a minute or two later. 0606. Right. Three little toes head for top of sea cliff. Sadly, they didn't make it, for the distance of 40 m was too far. Width of breakout front, about 2 m. 0619.

30 May 2003

Potential and real destruction

Thinning roof above Mother's Day tube near former Cookie Monster, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Part of 4,000 acres burned by lava-ignited fire, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Incandescence in roof of Mother's Day lava tube near former Cookie Monster skylight indicates thinning and weakening that could lead to collapse to form new skylight. Disaster is waiting to happen for anyone venturing into this area. 1003. Right. Dark brown areas in left half of image indicate part of 4,000-acre burn that took place on May 28-29. View looks west from near Pu`u `O`o and shows Napau Crater in right center, with narrow, dark lava flow from January 30, 1997. Other bare areas are lava flows covered with fallout from Pu`u `O`o fountains in 1983-1986. Crack in lower right is down-dropped trough resembling Great Crack on Kilauea's southwest rift zone. 0944
Standing dead trees engulfed by lava from breakout high up Mother's Day tube system, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Standing dead trees engulfed by lava from breakout high up Mother's Day tube system, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Standing dead trees surrounded by cooling lava that broke out of Mother's Day tube at 2400-foot elevation. This breakout started the large fire on May 28 that still continues. 1103 and 1158.

Video of eruptive activity

29 May 2003

Laterally spreading breakout flowing toward camera and shown in still for today, Kilauea volcano, Hawai`i May 29, 2003; 0545. Spreading and advancing breakout, the same as that shown in 0545 still image for today. Width of view, about 2 m.

Closer view of laterally spreading breakout flowing toward camera and shown in still for today, Kilauea volcano, Hawai`i May 29, 2003; 0544. Closer view of spreading and advancing breakout shown above. Width of view, about 0.6 m.

Rapidly developing breakout in Highcastle lobe, Kilauea volcano, Hawai`i May 29, 2003; 0603. Rapidly moving and changing breakout in Highcastle lobe. Still taken today at 0603 is of this breakout. Width of view, about 2.5 m.

Continuation of rapidly developing breakout in Highcastle lobe, Kilauea volcano, Hawai`i May 29, 2003; 0604. Continuation and further development of rapidly moving and changing breakout in Highcastle lobe. Still taken today at 0603 is of this breakout. Width of view, about 2.5 m.

23 May 2003

Two converging toes, also shown in stills for this day, Kilauea volcano, Hawai`i May 23, 2003; 0606. Two converging toes, the same as those shown in last two still images for today. Width of view, about 1.5 m.

Maps of lava-flow field, Kilauea Volcano

Map of flows from Pu`u `O`o: 16 May 2003

Map of lava flows on south coastal part of Kilauea Volcano as of 16 May 2003

Map shows lava flows erupted during 1983-present activity of Pu`u `O`o and Kupaianaha (see large map). Red colors, both dark and light, denote Mother's Day flow, which began erupting on May 12, 2002 and continues to the present. The darkest color represents flows active since January 21, 2003.

Most recent--and ongoing--activity has produced two flows, one along western edge of flow field and one slightly farther east. Kohola flow, along western margin, entered sea late on Valentine's Day to form short-lived Kohola ocean entry. This flow shortened the road still more. Visitors now can drive to Holei Sea Arch, 1.1 km from Kohola flow, and walk to see flow. Breakouts have been visible in various parts of Kohola flow, shifting from time to time across width and length of flow.

Other dark red flow is main active part of Mother's Day flow. Fed by breakouts from lava tube in main Mother's Day flow, it advanced along eastern margin of main flow and down Pulama pali and Paliuli. Western of two forks below Paliuli dripped over sea cliff at Highcastle on May 19, 2003, after map was made.

Lava from earlier, pre-January 21, 2003 Mother's Day flow (light red) reached sea at West Highcastle early on July 19, at Wilipe`a early on July 21, and at Highcastle on August 8. From near southwest base of Pu`u `O`o, Mother's Day flow passes along west side of flow field and into forest, where it started large wildfire in May that continued into late July. By June 10, Mother's Day flow had reached base of Paliuli, the steep slope and cliff below Pulama pali and just above coastal flat. At base of Paliuli, Mother's Day flow abruptly spread laterally in series of small budding flows to cover an area nearly 2 km wide, gradually moving seaward until West Highcastle and Wilipe`a lobes finally reached water and started building lava deltas. Activity at West Highcastle ended in early August, but entry began soon thereafter at Highcastle, eventually burying tiny kipuka of Chain of Craters Road. Wilipe`a entry died away slowly and had ended by mid-August. Highcastle and neighboring Highcastle Stairs entries ended on about August 23. For a time there were no active entries. Then Wilipe`a was reactivated on September 3 but stopped in December. West Highcastle likewise renewed activity on September 16-17, died away during night of September 18-19, and returned soon thereafter to continue through March 21. East arm of Mother's Day flow branched from Highcastle lobe in late October and sent three fingers into ocean at Highcastle on November 15, West Lae`apuki on November 19, and Lae`apuki on November 20. Lae`apuki entries had stopped by November 29. If this sounds like soap opera, the truth is even more confusing than the simplified version of activity given here.

 


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Updated: 7 June 2003 (DAS)