2 April 2004
Pu`u `O`o crater and `a`a-pahoehoe
| Left. Aerial view looking east
across Pu`u `O`o's crater. Farthest incandescent spatter cone is
part of East Pond Vent. Nearest two cones are in West Gap. Note that
near crater rim is overtopped and far rim is nearly so. 1114. Right.
Similar view as to left, but showing less of crater and more of
southwest flank of Pu`u `O`o. The two small fuming cones are at Puka
Nui (distant) and 55 cone/pit (nearer). The two West Gap cones are
prominent near left side of image. 1115.
| Left. Aerial view looking
southwest across eastern part of Pu`u `O`o's crater. Nearest two
cones form East Pond Vent. Fuming cone slightly farther away is
January Vent. Note large mound of lava flows built against south
wall of crater, host to South Wall Complex and Dave's Pit/Vent.
1052. Right. Aerial view of `a`a (brown) and pahoehoe (shiny
gray). Though hard to see in image, lava that develops pahoehoe
crust comes out of March 4 flow with `a`a crust. Source of this lava
is likely from Kuhio flow but could come from adjacent rootless
6 April 2004
Pu`u `O`o's crater
| Left. Nearly vertical view of
East Pond Vent, in Pu`u `O`o's crater. Note the "soft-appearing"
blanket of spatter surrounding the larger, incandescent cone. 1558. Right.
Aerial view, looking west, of crater of Pu`u `O`o on a murky
afternoon. Visible vents: East Pond Vent, lower right; January Vent,
center; Drainhole (heavy fume cloud); South Wall Complex, lighter
fume left of Drainhole; Beehive, mound in center of image; eastern
West Gap spatter cone, mostly hidden in fume at far end of crater.
9 April 2004
Pu`u `O`o's crater, flank, and upper Mother's Day flows
| Left. Aerial view looking south
of eastern part of Pu`u `O`o's crater. East Pond Vent is cluster of
two spatter cones emitting blue fume. January Vent, right of East
Pond Vent, gives off white fume. In foreground is north rim of
crater and upper slope of Pu`u `O`o scored by remobilized, rootless
flows of agglutinated tephra. Note how shallow crater floor is below
east end of crater. 0849. Right. Tilted aerial view of
crater, looking southwest. Visible vents beyond January Vent are
Beehive and the cones in West Gap. In foreground is East Spillway,
coated by flows that spilled from crater in late 1990s. 0849.
| Left. Tilted aerial view into
sun of northwestern flank of Pu`u `O`o. Some tephra that forms cone
agglutinated during rapid accumulation of fallout from high
fountains in mid-1980s. The hot, sticky material then remobilized
and oozed downslope, breaking into large masses along the way.
The resulting rootless flows score the flank of Pu`u `O`o. 0846. Right.
Looking east at West Gap shield surmounted by two steep-sided
spatter cones, with Pu`u `O`o's crater behind. Shadowed cliff is
same as along right edge of left image. 0846.
| Left. Lava flows from Okita
shield, high area in upper left, moved onto blanket of fallout
tephra west of Pu`u `O`o. Tephra coats foreground and mantles old
spatter rampart and related fissures near bottom of image. Two small
fuming areas are along Mother's Day lava tube; large fume cloud
blows downwind from Pu`u `O`o. 0848. Right. Thin pahoehoe
moved across loose tephra as in left image, in places lifting up
small pieces of pumice and scoria and in other places--most notably
in right-center of image, bulldozed and even burrowed into tephra.
Width of view, 4-5 m. 1053.
16 April 2004
Murky views of flow field
| Left. Aerial view looking toward
Pu`u `O`o (background)) showing active flows spreading downslope
from rootless shield complex (middle ground). Top of Pulama pali is
at bottom of image. Smoke in left center comes from small
kipuka--Banana Tree kipuka in local parlance--a local landmark
headed for oblivion. 0839. Right. Aerial view looking
upslope at narrow flow on upper part of Pulama pali. Helicopter
rotor blade in upper left. 0840.
| Left. Aerial view looking at
active terminus of flow in above-right image. Terminus is at
approximately the 1,800-foot elevation. 0839 Right. Small
hornito, actively growing, above lava tube in Kuhio (PKK) lava flow
south of Pu`u `O`o. White flight helmet and adjacent pack (at 10
o'clock from top of hornito) give scale. 1015.
26 April 2004
Fume and lava
| Left. Plume of volcanic gas
rising above Pu`u `O`o (hidden) and drifting down trade winds across
Pulama pali, with incandescent lava flow near top of pali. 1081. Right.
Similar view as in left image, but plume rises much higher above
Pu`u `O`o. 0541.
| Left. Just before sunrise,
curtains of fume dirty air and create gorgeous color. Fume gives
splotchy appearance to image above bright color (for you digital
camera buffs, this is not noise). Coastline visible in foreground.
0543. Right. Rising sun, hidden by `ohi`a in lower right,
lights puffs of fume. View looks east along Holei and Pulama pali.
27 April 2004
Sampling lava and Banana flow
| Left. Sampling lava with
modified hoe from small flow just east of Banana flow. 1052. Right.
Front of Banana flow (shiny flow with largest smoke plume) in kipuka along
relatively flat part of Pulama pali. Relatively flat area heads
toward photographer and is site of flow front on April 28. 1329.
28 April 2004
Lava on the pali
| Left. Front of Banana lava flow
at about 1700-foot elevation on Pulama pali. The front is on
relatively gentle slope
of stair-step pali and is about 50 m wide. Note dead trees in front
of flow--same ones as in right image below. 0524. Right. Similar view as in left image but
without telephoto, to show context of Banana flow on Pulama pali.
Note fume cloud from Pu`u `O`o on left. 0537.
29 April 2004
Lava and burning trees
| Left. Channel of lava flowing
across `a`a of Banana flow in small kipuka at about 1250-1300-foot
elevation. Flow front is advancing rapidly and emerged from kipuka
as photographer watched. 1800. Right. Channel passes
through kipuka, starting trees on fire. 1830.
Map of flows from Pu`u `O`o: 9 April 2004
Map shows lava flows erupted during 1983-present activity of Pu`u `O`o
and Kupaianaha (see
Shades of red denote Mother's Day flow, which began erupting on
May 12, 2002 and continues to the present. Darkest shade indicates lava
flows erupted in November 2003-9 April 2004. Yellow stars indicate
centers of recently active rootless shields built along lava tube in
Mother's Day flow. As of April 9, no shields were active except for
Okita shield, uppermost in the rootless shield complex. As of April 9,
most activity was located south of the rootless shield complex and was
fed by breakouts from the Mother's Day tube, which now carries lava
beneath the shields to the breakout points.
Through September and into early October 2003, lava was moving along
the east and west sides of the Mother's Day flow. The east-side lava
(known as the August 9 breakout) came from the August 9 rootless shield,
itself fed by the main Mother's Day tube from Pu`u `O`o. The west side
lava, known as the Kohola arm of the Mother's Day flow, branched off the
tube system below the rootless shield.
In early October 2003, the August 9 breakout stopped moving, the Kohola
died back to a trickle, and the one labeled rootless shield gained
prominence. By October 16, however, the shield had partly collapsed,
leaving several drained perched ponds behind. Upstream from the shield,
many hornitos and small flows formed over the Mother's Day tube. Soon
thereafter, other rootless shields began to form over the Mother's Day,
August 9, and Kohola tubes.
New vents opened at the southern base of Pu`u `O`o on January 19 and
fed Martin Luther King (MLK) flows, which remained active until March 5.
Several small vents formed during this time. On March 20, Prince Kuhio
Kalaniana`ole (PKK) flow originated from two vents, main one about 250 m
south of base of Pu`u `O`o. That flow was sluggishly active when map was
made on April 9.
Vents in West Gap Pit became active in early October, were quiet for
3 weeks, and then resumed intermittent activity that continued well into
December. Other vents were also sporadically active in Puka Nui (near West Gap Pit)
and in the crater of Pu`u `O`o.
Map of Pu`u `O`o and vicinity: 9 April 2004
Map shows vents, lava flows, and other features near Pu`u `O`o frequently referred to in updates (see
large map). These features change often, but this map should help
those viewers lost in the terminology. The cones in West Gap are just
outside the boundary of the crater--the oval shaped depression
containing the seven numbered vents (now down to 6, as Humble Vent has
been buried by a mound of lava flows erupted from Dave's Pit/Vent in
March. Red color denotes flows--the
Mother's Day flows--erupted since May 12, 2002. Light orange color indicates
episode-55 flows erupted between March 1997 and August 2002 (exclusive
of Mother's Day flows). Darker orange represents MLK flows, and yellow,
PKK flow. Vents for these two sets of flows shown by indicated symbols. Gray shows flows of earlier episodes.
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Updated: 3 May 2004 (DAS)