13 February 2004
Outside of Pu`u `O`o
| Left. Aerial view looking east,
showing lava spattering and gushing from broken side of west cone
atop West Gap shield. Higher east cone just to left. Shiny lava is
hot active flow fed by west cone. Side of cone broke apart at 1158
February 12, during start of Lincoln's Birthday event, when abrupt
deflation started at Pu`u `O`o. 1045. Right. Similar to
left, but from farther west showing West Gap spatter cones in
context of Pu`u `O`o. Gently rounded mound directly behind cones is
new shieldlike edifice created mainly during past week from
extrusions at South Wall Complex and possible Dave's Pit Vent.
Darkest flows right of cones spilled outside crater as new edifice
overtopped West Gap. 1336.
| Left. Aerial view looking north,
showing dark lava flows that spilled from crater through Puka Nui
Gap (right) and West Gap (center, with steep cones). Spill came from
shieldlike edifice that overtopped crater rim. Lighter flows in
center of image are erupting from vent in filled Puka Nui. 1335. Right.
Similar view as that in left image, but farther back. Note how spill
through Puka Nui Gap turned southeast (down to left) and moved along
base of cone. 1041.
| Left. Closer view of lava flows
spilling into filled Puka Nui. Note active vent in lower center,
feeding small flows that are building a mound over the vent. 1044. Right.
Observer watching small, developing hornito in southern part of
rootless shield complex. Compare with images below. 1117:28.
| Left. Lava splashing out of
small hornito 16 seconds after right image above was taken. 1117:44. Right.
Lava burping from hornito. Bits of spatter best seen in large view.
15 February 2004
Incandescence at Pu`u `O`o on a Sunday morning
| Left. East Pond Vent (left) and
January Vent (right), two complex spatter cones on eastern floor of
Pu`u `O`o's crater, just before dawn. View is from north rim of
crater. 0634. Right. Spatter cones atop West Gap shield,
viewed from north rim of Pu`u `O`o's crater. Western cone, source of
main outflow starting on Lincoln's Birthday, is partly hidden by
taller eastern cone. Each is incandescent. 0641.
| Left. Similar view to above
right but after dawn, more clearly showing the two cones. 0722. Right.
Wide-angle view showing shieldlike edifice in southwestern part of
crater, formed by outflow from South Wall Complex and possibly
Dave's Pit Vent in past 10 days or so. This edifice poured lava over
crater rim into Puka Nui and West Gap (see images for February 13).
Remnant of crater rim behind shield in center of view. Cones in West
Gap are at right. 0728.
20 February 2004
Breakout and spatter cone
| Left. Breakout (shiny) from
Okita shield, uppermost rootless shield along Mother's Day flow. In
background is Pu`u `O`o and West Gap shield, on western flank of
Pu`u `O`o. Cones atop West Gap shield are barely visible in large
image. In foreground is ground
coated with tephra--in this case pumice and scoria--from high
fountaining episodes between 1983 and 1986. Note cracks, some
steaming, cutting the tephra. 0838. Right. Pieces of tephra
picked up by moving lava and stuck on upper crust. As lava wells out
from front of flow, it picks up small pieces of tephra. As flow
inflates, the pieces are lifted up onto top of flow. The pieces have
only moved up, not backward. 1202.
| Left. Active spattering from
nearer (eastern) of two cones at East Pond Vent, viewed from air. 1139. Right.
View of East Pond Vent from eastern rim of Pu`u `O`o. Not long ago,
one looked down onto top of cones. As crater filled, cones grew upward until now they tower above eastern crater
22 February 2004
View of activity south of Pu`u `O`o
| Left. Bright glow above lava
flow south of Pu`u `O`o. This flow is probably fed from vent at
south or southeast base of Pu`u `O`o. North flank of Kane Nui o Hamo,
a lava shield probably 600-1000 yr old,
obscures flow to right. Pu`u `O`o is to left, with several
incandescent vents in its crater. Lone incandescent vent in lower
center of image is in Puka Nui. Image taken from Pu`u Huluhulu.
0614. Right. Nearly same view as to left but 6 minutes
later, with more light from dawning sky. Pu`u `O`o cone more clearly
shown, as is relation of Puka Nui vent to Pu`u `O`o. 0620.
27 February 2004
Murky day near Pu`u `O`o
| Left. Lava shield under
construction at south base of Pu`u `O`o. The shield started to form
during a substantial deflation of Pu`u `O`o on February 21. It had
three vents, all near the MLK vent (near center of image, partly
buried by growing shield. Two of the shield's vents are now
submerged. To left is scallop of Puka Nui. Cracks on Pu`u `O`o
opened or widened during MLK event on January 18. 1010. Right.
Closer view of lava shield, showing active flows spilling down
gentle flanks. 1004.
| Left. Lava flow gradually
spreading across brown tephra deposit produced by high fountains
from Pu`u `O`o in mid-1980s. Flow is fed by Okita shield, in upper
center of view, the uppermost shield along the Mother's Day lava
tube. 0956. Right. Loud hissing sounds and spitting spatter
come from these spires at Cookie Monster hornito, currently the
uppermost manifestation of the Mother's Day lava tube. 1033.
Map of flows from Pu`u `O`o: 22 January 2004
Map shows lava flows erupted during 1983-present activity of Pu`u `O`o
and Kupaianaha (see
large map). Yellow lava flows began erupting from new vent (green
star) at base of Pu`u `O`o on January 18, 2004; it is named the MLK
Shades of red denote Mother's Day flow, which began erupting on
May 12, 2002 and continues to the present. Darkest shade indicates lava
flows erupted in November 2003-January 2004. Yellow stars indicate
centers of recently active, or still active, rootless shields in
Mother's Day flow. New
shields often form, so it is hard to show all shields on this map.
Through September and into early October 2003, lava was moving along
the east and west sides of the Mother's Day flow. The east-side lava
(known as the August 9 breakout) came from the August 9 rootless shield,
itself fed by the main Mother's Day tube from Pu`u `O`o. The west side
lava, known as the Kohola arm of the Mother's Day flow, branched off the
tube system below the rootless shield.
In early October 2003, the August 9 breakout stopped moving, the Kohola died
back to a trickle, and the one labeled rootless shield gained prominence. By October
16, however, the shield had partly collapsed, leaving several drained
perched ponds behind. Upstream from the shield, many hornitos and small
flows formed over the Mother's Day tube. Soon thereafter, other rootless
shields began to form over the Mother's Day, August 9, and Kohola tubes.
These shields have been active throughout November and December.
Vents in West Gap Pit became active in early October, were quiet for
3 weeks, and then resumed intermittent activity that continued well into
December. Other vents were also sporadically active in Puka Nui (near West Gap Pit)
and in the crater of Pu`u `O`o.
Map of Pu`u `O`o and vicinity: 26 January 2004
Map shows vents, lava flows, and other features near Pu`u `O`o frequently referred to in updates (see
large map). These features change often, but this map should help
those viewers lost in the terminology. The cones in West Gap are just
outside the boundary of the crater--the oval shaped depression
containing the seven numbered vents. Red color denotes flows--the
Mother's Day flows--erupted since May 12, 2002. Orange color indicates
episode-55 flows erupted between March 1997 and August 2002 (exclusive
of Mother's Day flows). Gray shows flows of earlier episodes.
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Updated: 20 March 2004 (DAS)