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Kilauea

1 July 2004

A bit of lava on Paliuli

Lava on Paliuli, Banana flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Mouth of small lava tube, and toe from tube, Banana flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Trickle of lava on new fan built against Paliuli. In foreground is flow at base of pali Paliuli here is about 8 m high. 0547. Right. Upper incandescence comes from mouth of small tube on fan of Paliuli. Toes below are in lava that emerged from tube. Mouth of tube is about 1 m across. 0548.
Toe of lava emerging from under crust, Banana flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Wrinkles on crust of small lava toe, Banana flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Toe of lava emerging from under crust at base of Paliuli. Gradation in color reflects temperature. Crust forms, cools, and becomes wrinkled. Distance of travel for lava in view, about 1 m. 0549:42. Right. Same toe as in left image, but 58 seconds later and focused on wrinkled crust. 0550:40.
First in trio of images of toe emerging from under crust, Banana flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Second in trio of images of toe emerging from under crust, Banana flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. First in trio of images showing lava breaking from under crust to form toe. Cracking sounds preceded breakout by just long enough to place camera tripod on ground and point. Width of breakout area, about 2 m. 0615:34. Right. Next in series of images, only 12 seconds after left image. Note how lava has overwhelmed broken slab of crust, and how breakout has "unzippered" toward right. 0615:46.
Third in trio of images of toe emerging from under crust, Banana flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Toe in foreground and small cascade on Paliuli in background, Banana flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Final in series of images, 8 seconds after right image above. Most disruption caused by breakout has ended, and lava flows quietly onto surface. 0615:54. Right. Mouth of small lava tube (toe) in foreground, and cascade emerging from under crust on Paliuli in background. Cascade is about 3 m long. 0618.

2 July 2004

Main entry area, eastern Banana delta and Banana flow

Spatter and cascades of lava, eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Drips and cascades of lava, eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. A small burst of spatter forms backdrop to cascades and falls of lava off point of eastern Banana delta. Spatter was apparently expelled when water was trapped beneath a lava stream, unfortunately hidden from view. Lava falls on right is 2-3 m high. 0521. Right. Setting for left image. Spatter was coming from glowing area on far side of point just left of midpoint of image. 0530.
Drips and cascades of lava, eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Drips and cascades of lava, eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Now multiple falls drop into the sea, as cascade above remains active. 0533. Right. Wide view of active point on delta. Rugged tumulus near skyline formed between Friday and Saturday mornings last week. Note black sand beach, a common feature that forms during ocean entry by water quenching lava into small pieces of black glass that then are carried by currents and deposited in relatively sheltered areas. 0543.
Drips and cascades of lava, eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Drips and cascades of lava, eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Activity has changed a bit but still resembles that earlier in morning, with lava flow or cascades, mostly hidden by steam, and multiple lava falls (awash by wave surge). 0556. Right. Different angle, and closer to water level, shown that the cascade has two forks. 0606.
Aerial view of Banana flow from pali to sea, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Aerial view of eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Aerial view looking up Banana flow from entry to above Pulama pali. Banana flow is lighter hued than older flows. It narrows just above and right of center to series of cascades down Paliuli and, above, Pulama pali. 0839. Right. Eastern Banana lava delta, most of which covers Wilipe`a delta of 2002. Rope barrier atop pre-Wilipe`a sea cliff crosses image from left to right; visitor overlook is just right of image area, along barrier. 0842.
Aerial view of Banana flow near Paliuli, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Blue fume from Banana lava tube above Pulama pali, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Looking from helicopter onto Paliuli, showing Banana flow just right of grassy kipuka. In dead center is lava fan, site of images on July 1. 0845. Right. Blue fume comes from Banana tube above Pulama pali. In distance, large view shows small laze plume from lava delta. 0848.

3 July 2004

Luna and lava

Predawn ocean entries, eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Early morning entries with one newly debouching from tube, eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Lava entering water off point of eastern Banana delta, viewed from northeast. Same area, in various magnifications, shown in all images today. Height of middle lava drip, 3-4 m. 0518. Right. Point of eastern Banana delta. Gushing right-hand entry comes from lava tube that opened at 0525, 6 minutes before this image was taken. 0531.
Full moon and colored western sky over eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Full moon and colored western sky over eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Full moon above eastern Banana delta. Brightest entry is lava gushing from tube in above right image. Western sky is rosy at dawn. 0536. Right. Only 12 minutes later, sky color has changed as sun is nearly up. Large image shows than lava is no longer leaving tube, interior of which is incandescent. 0548.
Incandescent lava tube in face of eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Eastern Banana delta viewed from northeast, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Long-lens view looking at cross-section of incandescent lava tube that poured lava into water between 0525 and 0544, 12 minutes before this image was taken. In background is old sea cliff before Wilipe`a delta formed in summer 2002. 0556. Right. Eastern Banana delta just after sun hits it. Note its relatively flat surface, typical of lava deltas (and water deltas, too, for that matter). Signs are along rope barrier atop pre-Wilipe`a sea cliff. 0614.

4 July 2004

A pretty nice Fourth

Predawn ocean entries, eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Predawn ocean entries, eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Two areas on eastern Banana delta are shedding lava into the water, as seen from visitor viewing area just northeast of delta. Largest area persisted until after dawn, but left area--on northeast side of delta's point--caved away several minutes after this image was taken. Height of cascades in right area, 4-6 m. 0521. Right. About one minute after large slab from the point broke away and fell into water. This changed configuration to viewers' disadvantage, since lava falls could no longer be seen off the point but instead were taking place in reentrant left by collapse. However, initial glow from falls in the reentrant was wonderful to see. 0523.
Predawn ocean entries, eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Predawn ocean entries, eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Glow at point has tamed down, but main entry continues to drip and fall into swash zone. Note black sand, generated by water quenching lava to brittle glass that waves break into sand-sized pieces. 0533. Right. Now main entry area is waning. Compare with first of today's images. 0539.
Eastern Banana delta and western dawn sky, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Ocean entries, eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. If you can't look east at sunrise, look west. Sky is often prettier there, in subtle way. Main entry area healthy again, but glow at point of delta is weak. 0546. Right. Twelve minutes later, main entry is waning again, and point's glow comes from lava hidden from view as result of earlier collapse. 0558.
Ocean entries, eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Ocean entries, eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Week-old tumulus (right) dominates surface of delta. 0604. Right. Wave starting to crash against the decidedly smaller main entry area. Such waves disrupt the falling lava only temporarily. As soon as water withdraws, lava breaks through water-quenched skin and shows itself. 0610.

5 July 2004

From rose to gold

Glow above eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Lava on eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Lava stream pours off front of eastern Banana delta, View looks east toward Lae`apuki. 0523. Right. Golden glow cast by rising sun sets scene for lava stream at front of Banana delta. 0547.
Laze and lava at eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Golden steam on eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Golden sunrise continues, as laze plume lofts off entry point. 0602. Right. Part of eastern Banana lava delta, with puffs of laze (a witches's brew of steam mixed with hydrochloric acid droplets and tiny bits of glass) rising where hot rock and lava contacts water. Golden sunrise glow gives image a sepia appearance. 0603.

6 July 2004

Nice, calm morning at Banana delta

Predawn sky above entry from eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Predawn sky above entry from eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Small ocean entries of lava create glow that nearly matches the color of the predawn sky in this view that looks across eastern Banana delta. 0519. Right. Fourteen minutes later, entry remains about the same but lightening sky creates mismatch in colors. Boat cruises back and forth past entry. 0533.
Lava and laze, eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Lava and laze, eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Glow and laze create ethereal view of eastern Banana lava delta. 0525. Right. Similar view, but the ethereal has given way to the mundane. 0537.

7 July 2004

Views from visitor overlook

Entries from eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Entries from eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Multiple streams of lava pour into Pacific near point of eastern Banana delta. 0532. Right. Twelve minutes later, one entry has vanished and details of others have changed. 0544.
Entries from eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Entries from eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Particularly narrow stream of lava drops 3-4 m into water. Note flying incandescent spatter from explosions at point of delta. 0550. Right. Long-lens vies of largest entry, which started to gush strongly several minutes earlier. High swell today is evident as wave prepares to crash against lava. 0607.

8 July 2004

Lava and people, as seen from visitor overlook

Entries and their reflections from eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Entries and their reflections from eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. This morning several streams of lava are entering ocean along northeastern front of eastern Banana delta. Streams are moderately vigorous and cast strong reflections in the water. 0520. Right. Three entry clusters create glow and reflections. 0522.
Fishing boat and ocean entries from eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Fishing boat and ocean entries from eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Lone fisherman takes time to video entries. He motors up current (left), then drifts in to this position...over and over and over. 0532. Right. The next cycle. 0539.
Sunrise east of eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
People standing of eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. The Banana entry is in the other direction, but this sunrise couldn't be passed up. Sun has just risen to left over rocky foreground. 0555. Right. This is disaster waiting to happen. Note steaming rocks directly below the two gentlemen, who ventured far beyond the park's barrier to test fate at the edge of the Banana entry. Clouds of laze billow up just behind them; luckily the wind didn't change direction when they were there. A large wave could have washed scalding water across them, part of the delta they are standing on could have collapsed suddenly, or another part could have collapsed and created a wave large enough to engulf them. Four people have been killed along lava deltas by just such sudden events.

9 July 2004

Reflections, flows, and stately lava falls

Entries and their reflections from eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Entries and their reflections from eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Nice reflections from lava cascades off side of eastern Banana delta. 0521. Right. Same area as in left image, but 28 minutes later and showing mildly explosive activity off point of delta. Note how much the entries have changed in detail. 0549.
Small flow nears beach at eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Stately lava falls from eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Part of eastern Banana delta, showing tiny lava flow nearing beach and steaming hot rocks stranded on beach. 0550. Right. Stately, slender lava falls show off at same area as in upper two images today. Height of falls, 4-5 m. 0559.

10 July 2004

Small collapse of delta as viewed from visitor viewpoint

Lava flow and entries from eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Stream of lava pours from high on eastern Banana delta and joins other ocean entries. Largest area of lava near left edge of image collapsed later, as shown below. Total relief in image, about 10 m. 0541. Right. Overview of active part of eastern Banana delta. Stream of lava is mostly obscured by laze. Leftmost incandescent area nearest camera is site of collapse shown below. 0544.
Area just before small collapse, eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Small collapse in progress, eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Scene of collapse area about 10 seconds before collapse started. Before next image, photographer panned to left to capture activity at far point. 0549:20. Right. Collapse has just started. Block is falling off area shown on left side of left image, exposing lava-filled interior of delta. 0549:34.
Small collapse in progress, eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Small collapse in progress, eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Ten seconds later, block in right image above has disappeared and other smaller blocks are falling. 0549:44. Right. Camera has panned right from left image, and, 12 seconds later, show seems over. But wait, there's more! Note that stately lava falls continue to show off. 0549:56.
Small collapse in progress, eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Collapse is over, eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Only 4 seconds later, slab containing the two stately falls in right image above is slipping off, and the falls are cattiwompus (to put it scientifically), not vertical, as they are carried down by the tilting slab. Notice how lava is being tossed up from behind disintegrating slab. Collapse was greeted with oohs, ahhs, and applause from assembled viewers. 0550:00. Right. Sixteen seconds later, the show is indeed over. (One out-of-focus image, taken at 0550:08, shows nothing but steam obscuring the disappeared slab.) Lava gushes from interior of delta, but no more collapses took place. Activity such as this continued for several minutes before supply of stored lava dwindled and entry took on a more normal appearance. 0550:16.

11 July 2004

Gentle morning at eastern Banana lava delta

Entries from eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Entries from eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Wave prepares to crash against two lava streams near point on eastern Banana delta. 0552. Right. Sun lights water and small lava streams near point on delta. 0606.
Entries from eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Eastern Banana delta and edge of visitor overlook, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Same area as in upper right image, showing lava in background through laze. 0609. Right. Wide-angle view from point of Banana delta to edge of visitor viewing area, taken from a point within viewing area. Prominent cliff is old sea cliff before Wilipe`a delta built out from it in 2002. Lava from current Banana flow covered much of Wilipe`a delta and finally built outward from the older delta, to form a new one. Former seaward margin of Wilipe`a delta has been almost obscured in most places by the younger Banana lava. Black sand beach has been built during past two years of activity at Wilipe`a, Banana, and other lava deltas. 0616.

12 July 2004

Predawn and after dawn at eastern Banana lava delta

Glow from entry and predawn sky, eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Short-lived entry on eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Predawn glow from several small ocean entries just south of point on eastern Banana lava delta. 0518. Right. Small lava stream halfway between point on delta and northeastern black sand beach. Stream was active only briefly, from about 0545 to about 0610. 0606.
Gushing lava off point of eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Helicopter observing activity at point of eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Several narrow streams pour from gushing lava tube near point of Banana delta. 0609. Right. Tour helicopter watches entry in left image. 0614.

13 July 2004

High surf and many entries at eastern Banana lava delta

Lava falls off point of eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Many entries along northeastern side of eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Lava pours of point of eastern Banana delta. Note skewed trajectories of falls, which reflect exit directions from feeding tubes. 0529. Right. Multiple entries along northeastern side of delta, viewed from visitor overlook. Some entries are near where delta reaches seaward from new beach. Delta in this area has thickened considerably in past 24 hours owing to breakouts and inflation. 0533.
Lava falls off point of eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Lava piles up at base of falls at point of eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Another view of lava falls at point of delta, as water rushes out after large wave crashed ashore. 0538. Right. View of largest falls in left image, after water has receded. Falls is building mound of lava on beach in swash zone. This is part of process of seaward growth of delta. 0540.
Ocean entries at point of eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Ocean entries at point of eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Eleven minutes after right image above was taken, new stream of lava is just starting to fall into water farther right than older falls. 0551.  Right. Two minutes later, now stream has developed second branch near falls, and broad cascade 2-3 m wide drops to water. 0553.
Eastern Banana delta with several ocean entries, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Small entries and laze at eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Dawn view of delta, with fewer active entries than in view at 0533. 0557. Right. Closer view of three small entries, slopping onto beach in swash zone with laze lofting off delta. 0558.
Large wave about to crash on lava falls at point of eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
High surf at eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Sun's up, and so's surf. Wave prepares to crash against point of delta. 0613. Right. Wave sweeps toward delta. High surf warning was declared last night for this area, and it proved out. 0615.

14 July 2004

Weak activity at point of eastern Banana lava delta

Point of eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Single flow from point of eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Point on eastern Banana lava delta continues its seaward growth. Even with weak activity, slowly but surely the point reaches farther out. 0544. Right. Single stream emerges from small tube and courses down to water. 0555.

15 July 2004

Seafloor lava flow from point of eastern Banana lava delta

Glow from seafloor flow off point of eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Explosion from seafloor flow off point of eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Glow extends along line from point of eastern Banana lava delta (right) for several tens of meters. It comes from a narrow lava flow on the seafloor, fed by an ocean entry hidden by glow at point. Seafloor flow is visible only as water level drops between waves. 0530. Right. Same scene as at left, but now a small explosion is taking place from seafloor flow. Water trapped by a toe of the flow heats to steam and blasts through its molten trap. 0532.
Seafloor flow off point of eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Seafloor flow off point of eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Same scene as above, but light now shows ragged top of seafloor flow. Note that all four images today were taken from same location at same magnification. 0559. Right. After sunup, seafloor flow is nicely visible during receding water. Note gush of lava now pouring off point. 0616.
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Map of flows from Pu`u `O`o: 21 May 2004

Map of lava flows on south coastal part of Kilauea Volcano as of 21 May 2004

Map shows lava flows erupted during 1983-present activity of Pu`u `O`o and Kupaianaha (see large map).

Shades of red denote Mother's Day flow, which began erupting on May 12, 2002 and continues to the present. Darkest shade indicates lava flows erupted in November 2003-21 May 2004, including the labeled Banana flow, which developed gradually starting in the middle of April. Yellow stars indicate centers of formerly active, but now dead, rootless shields built along lava tube in Mother's Day flow. Yellow shade indicates Kuhio (Prince Kuhio Kalaniana`ole) flow, active most of the time from March 20 to May 21. As of May 21, most activity was located south of the rootless shield complex in the Banana flow, fed by the Banana branch of the Mother's Day tube. The Kuhio flow remains active, too.

Through September and into early October 2003, lava was moving along the east and west sides of the Mother's Day flow. The east-side lava (known as the August 9 breakout) came from the August 9 rootless shield, itself fed by the main Mother's Day tube from Pu`u `O`o. The west side lava, known as the Kohola arm of the Mother's Day flow, branched off the tube system below the rootless shield.

In early October 2003, the August 9 breakout stopped moving, the Kohola died back to a trickle, and the one labeled rootless shield gained prominence. By October 16, however, the shield had partly collapsed, leaving several drained perched ponds behind. Upstream from the shield, many hornitos and small flows formed over the Mother's Day tube. Soon thereafter, other rootless shields began to form over the Mother's Day, August 9, and Kohola tubes.

New vents opened at the southern base of Pu`u `O`o on January 19 and fed Martin Luther King (MLK) flows, which remained active until March 5. Several small vents formed during this time. On March 20, Prince Kuhio Kalaniana`ole (PKK) flow originated from two vents, main one about 250 m south of base of Pu`u `O`o. This flow has remained active most of the time to the May 21 date of this map.

The Banana flow developed from breakouts from the Mother's Day lava tube, centered near the former Banana Tree kipuka. The breakouts become prominent in the middle of April, and lava started down Pulama pali shortly thereafter. This is the time that we assigned the name Banana to the flow.

Vents in West Gap Pit became active in early October, were quiet for 3 weeks, and then resumed intermittent activity that continued well into December. Other vents were also sporadically active in Puka Nui (near West Gap Pit) and in the crater of Pu`u `O`o.

Map of Pu`u `O`o and vicinity: 9 April 2004

Map of Pu`u `O`o and vicinity as of 9 April 2004

Map shows vents, lava flows, and other features near Pu`u `O`o frequently referred to in updates (see large map). These features change often, but this map should help those viewers lost in the terminology. The cones in West Gap are just outside the boundary of the crater--the oval shaped depression containing the seven numbered vents (now down to 6, as Humble Vent has been buried by a mound of lava flows erupted from Dave's Pit/Vent in March. Red color denotes flows--the Mother's Day flows--erupted since May 12, 2002. Light orange color indicates episode-55 flows erupted between March 1997 and August 2002 (exclusive of Mother's Day flows). Darker orange represents MLK flows, and yellow, PKK flow. Vents for these two sets of flows shown by indicated symbols. Gray shows flows of earlier episodes.



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Updated: 24 July 2004 (DAS)