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Kilauea

16 July 2004

Point of eastern Banana lava delta

Seafloor flow off point of eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Explosion from seafloor flow off point of eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Seafloor flow, first seen yesterday, remains active this morning. View is from same place as images of July 15 and at same magnification. 0530. Right. At slightly less magnification, small explosion in progress from tip of seafloor flow. Rock this side of point is same one visible in yesterday's images. 0533.
Overhanging point of eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Wide view of point of eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Back to maximum magnification, showing overhanging tip of point. 0536. Right. Wider view of point, with nice striations in wave and swash. 0550.

17 July 2004

Activity just southwest of point of eastern Banana lava delta

Breakouts and entries just southwest of point of eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Predawn sky and active breakouts just southwest of point of eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Several breakouts and ocean entries active just southwest of point of eastern Banana lava delta. Glow also comes from entries on northeast side of point. 0523. Right. Predawn sky serves as backdrop for activity at point of delta. 0534.
Breakouts and entries just southwest of point of eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Small explosion just southwest of point of eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Small cascades of lava, 2-3 m high, enter water as other breakouts appear on delta. This view sets scene for that of right image. 0542. Right. Burst of spatter comes from entry just over top of point. Small explosions such as this result from lava covering water, which flashes to steam and expands explosively through the lava. 0543.

18 July 2004

More activity just southwest of point of eastern Banana lava delta

Predawn sky and active breakouts just southwest of point of eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Predawn sky and active breakouts just southwest of point of eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Activity just southwest of point of eastern Banana lava delta. Lae`apuki in background. 0518. Right. Similar but with wider lens. 0525.
Active breakouts and ocean entries just southwest of point of eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Foolhardy soul standing on eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Lava falls and other breakouts create glow reflected by laze near point of eastern Banana delta. 0530. Right. Person stands in harm's way on surface of eastern Banana lava delta. Laze rises from ocean entry along right edge of view. The delta could have collapsed a second after this image was taken. Such are the risks taken by those who venture onto its surface.
Tumuli near point of eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Looking into sun at laze on eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Two tumuli near point of eastern Banana lava delta. Tumuli (singular, tumulus) form when lava in tube is pressurized and inflates roof of tube. Sun glitters off droplets of wave spray in lower right. 0611. Right. Laze plume blows off point of delta in this view looking into sun. 0613.

19 July 2004

Back to northeastern side of eastern Banana lava delta

Ocean entries on northeastern side of point of eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Ocean entries on northeastern side of point of eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Lava pours off point of eastern Banana delta. 0521. Right. Wider view, showing stream headed underwater and destined to add to seafloor flow (see right image below). Point of delta is hidden by glow from stream. 0526.
Ocean entries on northeastern side of point of eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Ocean entries on northeastern side of point of eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Rugged point now visible as stream has stopped. 0532. Right. Remains of last week's seafloor flow exposed during receding water. Note that it is still active, with lava pouring from inside its crust. 0550.

20 July 2004

Sunrise and lava

Ocean entries on northeastern side of point of eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Ocean entries on northeastern side of point of eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Lava falls off point of eastern Banana delta with backdrop of predawn sky. 0526. Right. Wider view. 0535.
Ocean entries on northeastern side of point of eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Ocean entries on northeastern side of point of eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Lava falls and small breakouts. 0545. Right. Nice sunrise behind delta. Note tiny arc of sun just appearing. Boat  is dimly lit to right. 0556.

21 July 2004

Upswing in activity at Banana delta

Ocean entries on northeastern side of point of eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Ocean entries on northeastern side of point of eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Lava falls and cascades midway between beach and point of eastern Banana delta, as viewed from visitor overlook. 0520. Right. Other entries and their reflections, viewed from same locality. 0529.
Ocean entries on northeastern side of point of eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Ocean entries on northeastern side of point of eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Small entries in foreground about to be covered by wave. 0543. Right. Lava flowing into water near beach bordering northeastern end of eastern Banana delta. 0554.
Ocean entries on northeastern side of point of eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Ocean entries on northeastern side of point of eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Lava flow slowly moving across black sand beach adjacent to eastern Banana delta. 0558. Right. Breaking wave about to crash on lonely entry. 0607.

22 July 2004

New flow on beach at eastern Banana delta

Ocean entries on northeastern side of point of eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Ocean entries on northeastern side of point of eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Entries and glow from site about halfway from point to beach of eastern Banana lava delta. Note witch's crooked nose. 0528. Right. The nose remains in this view panned a little to right to show more of the entry area. Lava falls is about 3-4 m high. 0539.
New flow on beach of eastern Banana delta with dawning western sky, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
New flow on beach and ocean entries of eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. New flow on beach in foreground. This flow started to form yesterday morning and is stagnant this morning. Dawning western sky forms backdrop. Note incandescent breakout on surface of lava delta. 0550. Right. Closer view of steaming new flow, with water on smooth black sand beach formed in past two months. Point of delta has no lava--the first time in weeks it has been barren. 0601.

23 July 2004

Point comes back to life; Pu`u `O`o and environs

Lighting predawn sky over breakouts on eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Ocean entries on northeastern side of point of eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Breakouts on surface of eastern Banana lava delta, viewed from top of old sea cliff dating from 2002. Glow indicates several places where lava pours into water. Lighting eastern sky heralds sunrise, still about 40 minutes away. 0517. Right. Streams of lava hurry to meet water along northeastern side of lava delta, viewed from visitor overlook. Leftmost stream is at point of delta, which was dead yesterday morning. 0531.
Ocean entries on northeastern side of point of eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Ocean entries on northeastern side of point of eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Camera has pulled back some to see context of right image above. Note lava entering the water right at water level. 0537.  Right. Reflections from lava at point of delta. 0540.
Ocean entries on northeastern side of point of eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Ocean entries on northeastern side of point of eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Very similar to left image above, but with greater magnification. As water comes in, lowest entries become totally submerged, and a dark crust forms on the lava owing to quenching against the water. As water recedes, dark crust ruptures and lava spills out...over and over and over, with each wave cycle. 0544. Right. Sunlight starting to illuminate scene. 0604.
Boat eyes point of eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Sun shines on eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. People in boat taking video of lava streams on point of delta. 0608. Right. Sunlit view of part of eastern Banana lava delta. Water washes onto beach and around lava flow formed on July 21-22. Compare with images taken at 0601 on July 22. Light color on delta is from minerals, including sea salt, deposited on surface over time. 0610.
West Gap and Puka Nui Gap, Pu`u `O`o, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Cracks in south side of Pu`u `O`o, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Unusual perspective of western side of Pu`u `O`o. Just above center is Puka Nui Gap, almost at level of crater floor. Just right of center are spatter cones in West Gap. Dark lava flows erupted from the cones in past 9 months. Red-brown tephra forms northwest flank of Pu`u `O`o; lines are foot trails. 0850. Right. Cracks cutting south side of Pu`u `O`o. This area is actively deforming and is monitored weekly. 1116.
Active flow with `a`a crust erupting from PKK shield, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Aerial view of eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Red-brown flow is moving away from its vent atop PKK shield south of Pu`u `O`o. Large image shows liquid lava near base of image. Flow has `a`a crust. 0904. Right. Aerial view of eastern Banana lava delta, looking down and west. Patchwork pattern results from numerous breakouts on surface of delta in past several days. Part of rope barrier, behind which visitors are supposed to stay, visible in upper right. Several entries visible in large image. 0855.
Pit in top of Amalgamated Bend shield, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Lava in pit atop Amalgamated Bend shield, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Aerial view of collapse pit atop Amalgamated Bend shield, developed on Mother's Day lava tube south of Pu`u `O`o. Crusted lava visible in hole, at depth of about 14 m. 0920. Right. Ground view of lava in pit of left image. Crust is slowly overturning, and lava is welling up around edges of sinking plates of crust. 1125.

24 July 2004

Taking a chance, a BIG chance; Amalgamated Bend shield

Predawn eastern sky over breakouts southwest of point on eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Ocean entries on southwestern side of point of eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Looking east at breakouts southwest of point on eastern Banana lava delta. One small lava falls and glow from other entries provide foreground for predawn sky. 0518. Right. Similar view but with longer lens. 0524.
Taking a chance at front of eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Taking a chance at front of eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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The next four images are of a person unfamiliar with the danger of the lava delta (bench). Wandering out in the darkness without reading about the danger, he asked a couple of "kids" (his word) where to see lava and they told him where to go, to a spot they had been minutes before. This was the lava delta. The person followed that bad advice and put himself in a position from which four others have never returned. Your photographer spoke with the person afterward. He is probably like many of you or your friends. Ignorant of the danger, he "went for it" without taking the time to learn about where he was going. Please, take that time, heed the warnings, don't go beyond the rope barrier, and don't blindly follow those who might venture onto the delta.  Left. Suddenly a person appears in the view, almost directly above the falls at the very edge of the delta. He didn't stay here long, moving instead a little southwest, perhaps for better perspective. 0524. Right. Here he is, 12 minutes later, at new perch only a little safer than the original. 0536.
Taking a chance at front of eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Taking a chance at front of eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Still there, 8 minutes later, as lava cascade emerges through the laze. 0544. Right. Nearly ready to leave, 21 minutes after his arrival, he holds a video camera as steam obscures easier shots. 0545.
Lava in collapse pit at Amalgamated Bend shield, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Lava in collapse pit at Amalgamated Bend shield, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Lava in collapse pit on top of Amalgamated Bend shield along Mother's Day tube south of Pu`u `O`o. Lava is at shallower depth than it was on previous day (see images for July 23). Note that thin crust on lava pond has no large wrinkle on left-hand surface. 0815:52. Right. Not quite 2 minutes later, a large wrinkle has developed on thin crust, as lava circulates below crust. 0817:42.

25 July 2004

A nice Sunday morning at the seashore

Entries along northeast side of eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Ocean entries on northeastern side of point of eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Several lava streams along northeastern side of eastern Banana delta. This activity is greater than during most of last week. Last week's beach flow is in foreground. 0556. Right. The show at night. Quite a scene. Each entry stream is a small breakout from multiple lava tubes within the delta. 0521.
Small lava falls on eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Small lava falls on northeastern side of point of eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Small "firehose" from jutting point prominent in right image above. Note shower of water falling along hose after latest wave. Height of hose in this view, about 2 m. 0525. Right. Similar view but with wider lens and between waves. 0539.
Multiple lava entries on eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Multiple lava entries on eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Crashing surf provides tough job for lava to build the delta larger. 0550. Right. Wider view of waves crashing against delta. Each crash removes parts of the delta. Each stream of lava adds them back. So it goes. Back and forth. Lava wins in the short term, water in the long. 0559.
Multiple lava entries on eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Lava entries on eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Activity is a little muted now compared with 15 minutes ago, but this is temporary. 0604 Right. Many water falls, and one lava falls, off side of delta. 0607.

26 July 2004

Lava entries and breakouts

Entries along northeast side of eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Entries along northeast side of eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Gushing lava stream pours into water from northeastern side of Banana delta. Stream is a couple of meters wide. Viewed from visitor overlook. 0521. Right. A number of entries adorn side of lava delta, constantly changing in intensity and location. 0539.
Breakout on eastern Banana delta covering southern part of beach flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Entries along northeast side of eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Breakout on surface of Banana delta has several fingers. One shown here along right side of image is moving across southern part of last week's beach flow. 0551. Right. Interplay of water and lava streams as sun comes up. 0556.

27 July 2004

Gorgeous morning at Banana delta; DID breakouts near Pu`u `O`o

Entries along northeast side of eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Entries along northeast side of eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Many streams of lava pour into water off northeastern side of eastern Banana delta. 0516. Right. View of lava falls from near point on lava delta. Height of visible part of falls, about 4 m. 0523.
Entries along northeast side of eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Entries along northeast side of eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Wide view of active part of Banana delta. Solitary rock on beach has been stranded as erosion has removed front of last week's beach flow. 0531. Right. View similar to that at 0516 but after activity was waned. Note that nearest part of delta has no lava spilling from it as at 0516. 0540.
Incandescent core of East Pond Vent, Pu`u `O`o's crater, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
New breakout related to DID event, south base of Pu`u `O`o, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Aerial view of East Pond Vent, easternmost spatter cone in crater of Pu`u `O`o. Note small flows that have come from vent in recent weeks. 1531. Right. Small flow, shiny, that apparently erupted during the deflation-inflation-deflation (DID) event that started this morning. Location is south base of Pu`u `O`o, whose cracked and slumped flank is visible at top of image. 1536.
Southwest-trending flow 200 m northeast of Cookie Monster, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Location of Rainbow shield, forming on southwest flank of PKK shield, Kilauea volcano, Hawai`i
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Left. Ground view of lava flow that issued from PKK tube about 200 m northeast of Cookie Monster hornito. This tube had not been active for some time. 1652. Right. Lava welling from crest of newly forming Rainbow shield, on southwest flank of PKK shield, with Pu`u `O`o in background. This activity is related to today's DID event, when magma entered Pu`u `O`o's shallow reservoir, overpressurized it (causing the inflation), and broke out of the PKK lava tube. 1711.
Rainbow shield forming on southwest flank of PKK shield, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Lava welling out and forming flow at top of new Rainbow shield, forming on southwest flank of PKK shield, Kilauea volcano, Hawai`i
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Left. How Rainbow shield got its name. View looks east, down Kilauea's east rift zone. 1751. Right. Aerial view of breakout point for flows forming Rainbow shield. 1712.

28 July 2004

Light and lava at Banana delta

Entries along northeast side of eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Entries along northeast side of eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Note the slender, graceful(?) stream of lava dropping 3-4 m into the water. 0623. Right. More robust streams along the northeastern front of Banana delta. 0631.

29 July 2004

Dark and light at Banana delta

Entries along northeast side of eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Entries along northeast side of eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Lava pours into water at and near point on eastern Banana delta. 0544. Right. Similar view to that in left image, more highly magnified, showing changed apparent color of lava as light comes on. Lava typically appears more orange in the dark and more red in the light. This is a transitional color. 0604.

30 July 2004

Four moods of same scene; East Pond Vent and PKK skylight

Entries along northeast side of eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Entries along northeast side of eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Predawn view of lava entering sea on eastern Banana delta. Largest entry is at point of delta. This image was taken just after a gush of lava appeared on the point, greatly enlarging the previous smallish entry. 0532. Right. Only 6 minutes later, light is increasing in the rapidly developing tropical dawn. Activity at point has declined, but narrow lava falls continues unchanged. 0538.
Entries along northeast side of eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Entries along northeast side of eastern Banana delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Still lighter, and lava falls is weakening. 0547. Right. Another gush transforms the entry at the point, as a wave crashes against the lava falls. 0550.
Aerial view of East Pond Vent, Pu`u `O`o, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Aerial view of East Pond Vent, Pu`u `O`o, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. East Pond Vent, on floor of Pu`u `O`o's crater. Note the tiny, relatively recent lava flows that have spilled from the vent. This vent can be seen in the near real-time images of Pu`u `O`o (see top of page). 1301. Right. Low-level aerial view of East Pond Vent. East Spillway of crater in foreground. Site of video camera is in upper left, distorted by heat shimmer from vent. 1258.
New skylight in PKK lava tube, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
New skylight in PKK lava tube, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. New--and treacherous--skylight formed above PKK lava tube. Skylight is about 5 m by 4 m across. 1322. Right. Ground view of this skylight, from which sample of lava was hauled. Note bizarre, fishhook-shaped piece of spatter hanging from roof of tube just beyond upper left corner of skylight. 1258.

Map of flows from Pu`u `O`o: 21 May 2004

Map of lava flows on south coastal part of Kilauea Volcano as of 21 May 2004

Map shows lava flows erupted during 1983-present activity of Pu`u `O`o and Kupaianaha (see large map).

Shades of red denote Mother's Day flow, which began erupting on May 12, 2002 and continues to the present. Darkest shade indicates lava flows erupted in November 2003-21 May 2004, including the labeled Banana flow, which developed gradually starting in the middle of April. Yellow stars indicate centers of formerly active, but now dead, rootless shields built along lava tube in Mother's Day flow. Yellow shade indicates Kuhio (Prince Kuhio Kalaniana`ole) flow, active most of the time from March 20 to May 21. As of May 21, most activity was located south of the rootless shield complex in the Banana flow, fed by the Banana branch of the Mother's Day tube. The Kuhio flow remains active, too.

Through September and into early October 2003, lava was moving along the east and west sides of the Mother's Day flow. The east-side lava (known as the August 9 breakout) came from the August 9 rootless shield, itself fed by the main Mother's Day tube from Pu`u `O`o. The west side lava, known as the Kohola arm of the Mother's Day flow, branched off the tube system below the rootless shield.

In early October 2003, the August 9 breakout stopped moving, the Kohola died back to a trickle, and the one labeled rootless shield gained prominence. By October 16, however, the shield had partly collapsed, leaving several drained perched ponds behind. Upstream from the shield, many hornitos and small flows formed over the Mother's Day tube. Soon thereafter, other rootless shields began to form over the Mother's Day, August 9, and Kohola tubes.

New vents opened at the southern base of Pu`u `O`o on January 19 and fed Martin Luther King (MLK) flows, which remained active until March 5. Several small vents formed during this time. On March 20, Prince Kuhio Kalaniana`ole (PKK) flow originated from two vents, main one about 250 m south of base of Pu`u `O`o. This flow has remained active most of the time to the May 21 date of this map.

The Banana flow developed from breakouts from the Mother's Day lava tube, centered near the former Banana Tree kipuka. The breakouts become prominent in the middle of April, and lava started down Pulama pali shortly thereafter. This is the time that we assigned the name Banana to the flow.

Vents in West Gap Pit became active in early October, were quiet for 3 weeks, and then resumed intermittent activity that continued well into December. Other vents were also sporadically active in Puka Nui (near West Gap Pit) and in the crater of Pu`u `O`o.

Map of Pu`u `O`o and vicinity: 9 April 2004

Map of Pu`u `O`o and vicinity as of 9 April 2004

Map shows vents, lava flows, and other features near Pu`u `O`o frequently referred to in updates (see large map). These features change often, but this map should help those viewers lost in the terminology. The cones in West Gap are just outside the boundary of the crater--the oval shaped depression containing the seven numbered vents (now down to 6, as Humble Vent has been buried by a mound of lava flows erupted from Dave's Pit/Vent in March. Red color denotes flows--the Mother's Day flows--erupted since May 12, 2002. Light orange color indicates episode-55 flows erupted between March 1997 and August 2002 (exclusive of Mother's Day flows). Darker orange represents MLK flows, and yellow, PKK flow. Vents for these two sets of flows shown by indicated symbols. Gray shows flows of earlier episodes.



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Updated: 8 August 2004 (DAS)