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Kilauea

5 November 2004

PKK flow heads for the coast

Western arm of PKK flow nears the coast, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Branched western arm of PKK flow nears the coast, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Eastern prong of western arm of PKK flow nears the coast. Terminus is about 220 m from shoreline. 0903. Right. Aerial view looking upstream, showing both prongs of western arm and site of eventual ocean entry. Old Lae`apuki lava delta is seaward of prominent old sea cliff. Later on this day, eastern prong of PKK flow cascaded down the cliff, crossed the old delta, and entered the ocean to form a new delta (see images for November 6). 0905.

6 November 2004

PKK flow makes it to the coast

PKK flow drops onto old Lae`apuki delta at sunrise, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
PKK flow drops onto old Lae`apuki delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Lava in PKK flow falls down old sea cliff inboard of old Lae`apuki delta, flows across the old delta, and plunges into water. Height of cliff, about 12 m. Sun is just peeking over horizon, wanting to see the fabulous sight. This activity started in past 12 hours. 0623. Right. Closer view of lava falls and streams on surface of old delta. Steam rises from places where lava drops off old delta and starts to form new delta. 0636.
Looking west across active lava entry at east Lae`apuki, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Small new delta growing out from old Lae`apuki delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Looking west, across new delta and lava streams on old delta. Steams are those farthest from camera in right image above. Lava entering water generates steam. New delta juts out from front of old delta. 0645. Right. Closer view of new delta, still tiny but growing. Nearer camera, small streams of lava fall from front of old delta but have not yet build a new delta. 0646.
Close-up of front of small new delta growing out from old Lae`apuki delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Lava stream on surface of old Lae`apuki delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Still closer view of new delta. Height of new delta, about 4 m. Note large drip of falling lava. 0655. Right. Looking down at flow on surface of old delta before it drops down onto new delta. 0659.
Pahoehoe at brink of old sea cliff behind Lae`apuki lava delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Lava streams on surface of old Lae`apuki delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Pahoehoe along east edge of active flow at brink of old sea cliff inboard of old delta. Lava emerges from under crust and plunges over cliff. Note debris on surface of toes, picked up from underlying ground surface. 0700. Right. Two parallel streams course across old delta. Near right edge are small cascades shown in left image. 0701.

8 November 2004

A weak but colorful PKK ocean entry

Predawn ocean entries off front of new lava delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Predawn ocean entries off front of new lava delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Glow from lava as it enters ocean at front of new delta formed by PKK flow. 0539. Right. Same view from different location, showing multiple entry points. Sea cliff is near right edge of image. 0545.
Predawn ocean entries off front of new lava delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
New lava delta at dawn, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Another colorful view of the new lava delta. 0552. Right. Finally, at dawn, it is light enough to see what the source of all the glow looks like. Everything in photo, except for the sea cliff near right side of image, is part of the new lava delta, still unnamed, which began forming on the night of November 5-6. 0601.
Photographer watches new lava delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
New lava flows coating old Lae`apuki delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Though a long hike from the end of Chain of Craters Road, the entry area is a Mecca for photographers. Photo from same location as the previous three, all of which look westward. 0614. Right. New lava flows coating surface of old Lae`apuki delta, looking east. Tiny glob of lava on old sea cliff is all that remains of cascades, but lava is flowing through one or more tubes down the cliff, across the old delta, to the new delta. 0633.

10 November 2004

East Lae`apuki by daylight

Ocean entries off front of new lava delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
New flows on old Lae`apuki lava delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. New lava delta juts some 50 m seaward of former coastline formed by old Lae`apuki delta. Note black sand beach formed since current entry began on November 5-6. 0712. Right. Surface of old Lae`apuki delta has been coated with many small flows fed by crusted cascades down old sea cliff to right. What was once a rather smooth surface has taken on much more character as a result of the new flows. 0722.
Ocean entries off front of new lava delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Ocean entries off front of new lava delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Lava meets the sea. Height of delta front, about 7 m. 0722. Right. Similar view as to left but at great magnification. 0723.

12 November 2004

Various and sundry

South flank of Pu`u `O`o and June 25 vent, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Sampling lava from PKK flow, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Part of south flank of Pu`u `O`o, showing cracks cutting the tephra cone. Headwall of Puka Nui faces left. Fume rises from June 25 vent just south of cone. 1040. Right. Sampling lava the old-fashioned way, with a rock hammer. Site is in PKK flow just above top of Pulama pali. Pu`u `O`o in upper left. 1230.
Aerial view of new and old lava deltas, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Aerial view of front of new lava delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Looking down on old and new lava deltas at Lae`apuki. Steam rises from front of new delta. Just left of center is steep slope that forms front of old Lae`apuki delta; this was shoreline before new delta formed. Old sea cliff predating previous delta is in upper left part of image. 1242.  Right. New lava delta. Note two clusters of actual entries--west and east. Width of delta, about 190 m. 1243.

16 November 2004

Showery...but c'est la vie

Glow at front of new eastern Lae`apuki lava delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Lava falls into the sea, front of eastern Lae`apuki lava delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Looking southwest at point of new eastern Lae`apuki lava delta. Glow comes mainly  from a bank of small entries southwest of point. 0543. Right. Lava drops into the water from a lava tube at front of eastern Lae`apuki delta. The off-vertical plunge of the lava falls is real, not a camera artifact. 0545.
Lava emerges from tube and creates glow at front of Lae`apuki lava delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Early morning sky behind eastern Lae`apuki lava delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Fewer than 10 seconds before this image was taken, a lava tube opened at the front of the delta, and lava gushed into the water. Immediately steam was produced. This image shows place where lava leaves tube. Width of lava stream is 1-2 m. 0546. Right. Looking seaward across new delta toward early daylight. A nice sunrise never developed but this would be a good place to see a future one. 0608.
Small breakouts from PKK flow near eastern Lae`apuki lava delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Small breakouts from PKK flow near eastern Lae`apuki lava delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Small breakout from new finger of west arm of PKK flow, about 180 m from sea cliff just northeast of new lava delta. This finger, and one shown below, are quite active this morning and, though small, stand a good change of making it to the water. 0628. Right. Remindful of a cat splayed out in the sun, this lava breakout spreads out from its feeding tube. 0632.
Small breakouts from PKK flow near eastern Lae`apuki lava delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Small breakouts from PKK flow near eastern Lae`apuki lava delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Front of other PKK finger northeast of active lava delta. Note nicely developed cracks in skin of right-hand toe. 0638. Right. Another place along same finger, showing broader toes emerging from under crust. Pulama pali forms backdrop. 0644.

18 November 2004

Liquid rock more than meets its match

Ocean entry at new eastern Lae`apuki lava delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Ocean entry at new eastern Lae`apuki lava delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. End of road for liquid lava, falling from front of new delta and being quenched to rock by the water. 0720. Right. East side of new lava delta at eastern Lae`apuki, with broad and narrow lava falls contributing black sand to the ocean sediment. 0737.

19 November 2004

Pu`u `O`o and Lae`apuki

Incandescent June 25 vent and south side and crater of Pu`u `O`o, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Spattering from hole at June 25 vent, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Cracked south flank of Pu`u `O`o, with crater at top of image and incandescent hole at June 25 vent near site of fuming south of cone. Complex headwall of Puka Nui truncates left side of cone. Dark area near center of image is site of new equipment to monitor ground shaking; switchbacked trail leads to it. 1334. Right. View from dark area in left image, showing spattering from incandescent hole in June 25 vent. The spattering culminated a gas-piston cycle, in which expanding gas lifts lava to the surface, eventually bursting out as spatter; lava then drops back down hole as volume of gas is lost. 1210.
Three arms of PKK flow, and ocean entry, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
New eastern Lae`apuki lava delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. "Pushed" image to show three arms of PKK flow. Western arm, by far the largest, feeds the ocean entry (steam); it bifurcates near the coast, the western lobe actually doing the feeding and the eastern lobe not quite at the sea cliff yet. Middle arm of flow is small, just left of long, narrow kipuka near top center of image. Eastern arm is aimed toward right side of image and descends Pulama pali just right of long, narrow kipuka near top center. 0914. Right. Looking across new eastern Lae`apuki lava delta. Front of older, Lae`apuki delta is visible as low cliff in upper quarter of image. Behind it is old sea cliff that predated the Lae`apuki delta. New delta forms outboard of old delta; note new black sand beach just right of new delta. Drapery from lava falls that feed new delta mantles sea cliff near center of image. Eastern lobe of western arm of PKK flow visible in upper right, stopping short of the sea cliff some 30-50 m. 0923.

26 November 2004

Day after Thanksgiving on the PKK flow

Looking southwest across new east Lae`apuki lava delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Entry near eastern tip of new east Lae`apuik lava delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Looking southwest across new lava delta at east Lae`apuki. Entry in lower right is from new eastern appendage of delta, supplied by eastern finger of PKK flow. Rest of glow is on main part of new delta and is from lava supplied by central part of PKK flow near coast. Flow in right half of view is fed by cascade breaking out from tube about one-third of way down old sea cliff. Width of view is about 60-70 m. 0555.  Right. View from same place as left image, showing entry off new eastern appendage of delta. 0605.
Looking southwest across older part of new east Lae`apuki lava delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Entry near eastern tip of new east Lae`apuik lava delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Main part of lava delta viewed from above its eastern appendage. 0613. Right. Surf basking in glow from lava entering water off eastern appendage of delta. 0618.
Breakout in PKK flow just inland of east Lae`apuki lava delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Breakout in PKK flow just inland of east Lae`apuki lava delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Breakout from small tube in PKK flow within 100 m of old sea cliff. Width off flow front, about 1.5 m. 0653. Right. Close view of bulbous toe of lava, showing details of its skin, including stretched bubble walls and filaments. Toe is about 20 cm thick. 0659.
Breakout in PKK flow just inland of east Lae`apuki lava delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
Breakout in PKK flow just inland of east Lae`apuki lava delta, Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i
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Left. Lava oozing from under crust and developing vertical split, from which lava emerged to form another toe just a few seconds later. Note stretched bubbles clearly showing the rolling nature of the lava as it surfaces from under the crust. Thickness of flowing lava, 15-20 cm. 0701. Right. Sheet of lava being delivered from under crust. Note the piece of crust that broke away and is being carried along on a free ride. With imagination, one can see stretched fingers grasping for a way out. 0702.

Map of flows from Pu`u `O`o: 19 November 2004

Map of lava flows on south coastal part of Kilauea Volcano as of 19 November 2004

Map shows lava flows erupted during 1983-present activity of Pu`u `O`o and Kupaianaha (see large map).

Shades of red and bright yellow denote Mother's Day flow field, which began erupting on May 12, 2002 and continues to the present. Darkest red indicates lava flows erupted in November 2003-August 2004, including the labeled Banana flow, which developed gradually starting in the middle of April. Orange shade denotes MLK flow, erupted in January and, in brief spurts, subsequently. Yellow shade indicates Kuhio (PKK) flow, active most of the time from March 20 through November and reaching the sea on the evening of November 5-6.

Through September and into early October 2003, lava was moving along the east and west sides of the Mother's Day flow. The east-side lava (known as the August 9 breakout) came from the August 9 rootless shield, itself fed by the main Mother's Day tube from Pu`u `O`o. The west side lava, known as the Kohola arm of the Mother's Day flow, branched off the tube system below the rootless shield.

In early October 2003, the August 9 breakout stopped moving, the Kohola died back to a trickle, and the one labeled rootless shield gained prominence. By October 16, however, the shield had partly collapsed, leaving several drained perched ponds behind. Upstream from the shield, many hornitos and small flows formed over the Mother's Day tube. Soon thereafter, other rootless shields began to form over the Mother's Day, August 9, and Kohola tubes.

New vents opened at the southern base of Pu`u `O`o on January 19 and fed Martin Luther King (MLK) flows, which remained active until March 5. Several small vents formed during this time. On March 20, Kuhio (PKK) flow originated from two vents, main one about 250 m south of base of Pu`u `O`o. This flow has remained active most of the time to the August 24 date of this map.

The Banana flow developed from breakouts from the Mother's Day lava tube, centered near the former Banana Tree kipuka. The breakouts become prominent in the middle of April, and lava started down Pulama pali shortly thereafter. This is the time that we assigned the name Banana to the flow.

Vents in West Gap Pit became active in early October, were quiet for 3 weeks, and then resumed intermittent activity that continued well into December. Other vents were also sporadically active in Puka Nui (near West Gap Pit) and in the crater of Pu`u `O`o.

Map of Pu`u `O`o and vicinity: 24 August 2004

Map of Pu`u `O`o and vicinity as of 24 August 2004

Map shows vents, lava flows, and other features near Pu`u `O`o frequently referred to in updates (see large map). These features change often, but this map should help those viewers lost in the terminology. The cones in West Gap are just outside the boundary of the crater--the oval-shaped depression containing the seven numbered vents (now down to 6, as Humble Vent has been buried by a mound of lava flows erupted from Dave's Pit/Vent in March. Red color denotes flows--the Mother's Day flows--erupted since May 12, 2002. Light orange color indicates episode-55 flows erupted between March 1997 and August 2002 (exclusive of Mother's Day flows). Darker orange represents MLK flows; yellow, PKK flow; purple, Puka Nui flow. Vents for these sets of flows shown by indicated symbols. Gray shows flows of earlier episodes.


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Updated: 22 December 2004 (DAS)