Hawaiian Volcano Observatory
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Mauna Loa
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Volcanic Hazards
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FAQ-SO2, Vog, and Ash
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Links to info about Hawaiʻi's two most active volcanoes:

Kīlauea: Daily eruption updates, maps and photos/videos.

Mauna Loa: Weekly updates and current monitoring data.

New USGS Fact Sheet about vog available online:

Volcanic air pollution hazards in Hawaii
Noxious sulfur dioxide gas and other air pollutants emitted from Kīlauea Volcano on the Island of Hawaiʻi react with oxygen, atmospheric moisture, and sunlight to produce volcanic smog (vog) and acid rain. Volcano Air Pollution Hazards in Hawaiʻi Fact SheetVog can negatively affect human health and agriculture, and acid rain can contaminate household water supplies by leaching metals from building and plumbing materials in rooftop rainwater-catchment systems. U.S. Geological Survey scientists, along with health professionals and local government officials are working together to better understand volcanic air pollution and to enhance public awareness of this hazard. Contents of this four-page Fact Sheet include:
  • Eruption Plumes and the Creation of Vog
  • What Controls Vog on the Island of Hawaiʻi?
  • Measuring Volcanic SO2 and its Impact on Air Quality
  • Where Does Vog Go?
  • Measuring Volcanic SO2
  • How Vog Affects Humans
  • How Vog Affects Agriculture and the Natural Environment
  • How Much SO2 is There?
  • How the Volcanic Plume Affects Water Quality
  • Climate and Weather: Regional and Global Impacts of Vog
  • Adapting to Life with Vog
For more information, please visit the Hawaiʻi Interagency Vog Information Dashboard, a centralized website providing links to comprehensive info and data about vog and its impacts. Contents include:
  • What is vog?
  • Vog and wind forecasts
  • Current air quality
  • Fog fact sheets
  • Health effects of vog
  • Protect yourself from vog
  • Plants and agriculture
  • Water catchment systems
  • Air purifier information
  • Space-based data and images
  • Advice for visitors to Hawaiʻi
  • Scientific literature


More Volcano Information from HVO and Beyond

Earthquake seismogramReport a felt earthquake to HVO using this form.
More USGS Volcano Web sites

Volcano WatchCurrent issue of Volcano Watch essay, written weekly by USGS scientists.
National Park ServiceHawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park, home to HVO. Find visitor information and resources here. Graphic: Kids DoorVolcanoes for kids, from the Volcano World website.
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U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, California, USA
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Last modification: 24 April 2017 (pnf)