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Longtime Observer says, "Aloha"

From day 1, I have been mesmerized by our observer's great gift of conveying his passion to share the happenings of what Pele was doing. His picturesque writing captured the human essence, making all of us feel like he was one of our closest friends-just sit back, relax, and talk story together. It captivated all of us, hooking us in to find out the continuing saga of Kilauea. This wonderful connection that he had with his readers had shown through in the many emails that I received over the years. There was concern for him when he wasn't feeling well, as well as, great empathy when his locked vehicle stranded him. Many also say his writing was their "daily fix", their morning coffee, to jumpstart their day! Still others reminisce to their previous experiences through the picturesque writings. To our superb observer and wonderful educator, "Aloha"!

Full text from July 17, 2006 Kilauea/update daily report:

This is my last early morning update describing Kilauea's eruption. During almost 7 years, I wrote about 2500 updates every day of the week, containing more than 600,000 words of hastily written prose, and drove some 200,000 roundtrip kilometers down the Chain of Craters Road to locate lava by its predawn incandescence or glow. I thoroughly enjoyed providing you with up-to-date, sometimes up-to-the-minute, descriptions of Kilauea's eruptive activity and related--or not, as the case may be--tilt and seismic changes. I tried to present the observations and interpretations in a consistent, informal style and format, readable and not overly technical. Almost daily, I updated the web page below with data plots, and, whenever available, posted images and associated captions that tried to inform as well as describe.

I also attempted to maintain some rigor of terminology, such as using "incandescence" instead of "glow" for hot lava (glow is the reflection of incandescence), and "lava delta" instead of "bench." In geology, a delta is a constructional landform, and a bench is defined as an erosional or destructional landform; lava delta is the term used internationally for the landform constructed by lava entering the sea, and it was used during Kilauea's Mauna Ulu eruption in 1969-74.

I continue to take pleasure in every aspect of the early morning ritual, but it is time to turn it over to others on the HVO staff. As Zorro once told his son, who was planning his first sword-slashing escapade, "Take my advice, son: get in, make your Z, and get out." I made my Z.

Watch this space to find out when the updates will be posted and in what format.

Your helpful, constructive comments over the years have been greatly appreciated. They provided the only tangible feedback I received, and they told me that I was doing something appreciated by the public. American taxpayers support HVO, and we owe them frequent, timely communications, at least daily for an erupting volcano such as Kilauea. But it wasn't out of a feeling of debt that I wrote the updates. Rather, it was, purely and simply, because I wanted to tell you about the eruption, the only one of its kind in the world. The updates were from the heart, not the workplan--a gift, not an obligation.

The late Louis Rukeyser, when asked how he made dry financial discussions so interesting on his TV program Wall Street Week, answered that he tried to follow three principles: 1) use simple language; 2) most people understand simple language, so you'd better know something about your subject matter; and 3) do it with a little flair. I tried to follow his advice; you can judge how well I succeeded.

Aloha, goodbye, auf wiedersehen, ciao, adios, adeus, au revoir, itte kimasu, tot ziens, gutbai, bless, khairete, do svidanja, la revedere, paalom, zai jian, and farewell in all the other native languages of people I know who read the early morning update,

Your observer

Full text from July 18, 2006 Kilauea/update daily report:

As many of you know, our regular "observer" posted his last update yesterday, July 17. You may be checking in today because you're curious to see who or what will fill this space. Rest assured that a daily update will be posted while Kilauea volcano is erupting, the updates will be in a readable style, but they will be different. Our goal is to post them by 10 am H.s.t. For more information about these changes, please see our current Volcano Watch article (

These daily updates will be posted by just two people in the first month while new web procedures are smoothed. Thereafter, the updates will be posted by a small cadre of HVO staff members on a rotational schedule. We lose our steady voice over the last many years but gain the opportunity to hear several new voices.

In his aloha posting, our observer for the past 2500+ updates relayed this story: "As Zorro once told his son, who was planning his first sword-slashing escapade, 'Take my advice, son: get in, make your Z, and get out.' I made my Z." Indeed, he did Z so well that there will be no attempt to redo it. Fortunately, there are 25 other letters and we will each attempt to make our own mark.

The HVO webmaster has received an impressive number of emails from our steady Kilauea update web visitors. They expressed sadness that their favorite "observer" had posted his last update and gratitude for the unbelievable job done by him. I imagine that TV networks get similar outpourings of concern when favored TV series are cancelled by the voluntary departure of the star. In the words of another departed public icon, "And that's the way it is."

Full text from July 21, 2006 Kilauea/update daily report:

Note from the long-time observer:

I was overwhelmed by the number of exceptionally kind messages that so many of you sent--sadly far too many for me to answer individually. Thank you all, from the bottom of my heart, for the warm sendoff. I have printed out each message, and they are destined to remain keepsakes. To answer some of the most-asked questions, I remain at HVO, focused on research, and will use the extra time for more evening reading, listening to classical music, and other activities at home beyond my former 1930 bedtime.

The torch has been passed, the flame still burns, and life goes on.

Mahalo nui loa for all your kindnesses,

Your observer

Here are some excerpts from emails received regarding our observer's aloha:

"I would like you to know that you will be missed. Your descriptive flair fed my obsession. After visiting Big Island (Sept. 2004) and falling in love with Kilauea, my separation anxiety was eased by knowing I could always check on how my volcano was behaving herself. You even kept me posted on the status of the moon. I will miss you sharing so much of "you" in your descriptions. You made science an artform. I have read your report every single morning for the past 6 years. I cannot begin to tell you how much I have appreciated your morning report, written with intelligence, style, and a wonderful dry wit that made it a joy to read."

"First let me thank the Observer for many years of wonderful volcano coverage. I have been mesmerized by Hawai'i volcanos from the day that we moved here in 1970. Coffee, the web page and the account of the Observer, have been my morning treat every day since the daily web page began."

"For the past five years I have looked forward to the daily reports on the progress of Kilauea's eruption and the sometimes stunning pictures. I don't even know your name but you're like an old friend."

"I appreciated the humor injected in your descriptions of the activities and looked forward to the daily reports. Thank you for all your work."

"Thank you for the very informative updates! You made it possible for this closet volcanologist feel like he was there with you!"

"Just about every day I pop in to see what is happening on the volcano, wish I was there, and to remember the awesome sights, sounds, smells that I have witnessed there."

"I am an English professor and writer whose deceased first wife was a "Hilo girl". I began to make it a kind of spiritual practice to check in, virtually every day, on your update (no matter how busy I was with whatever crisis). I do know something of geology, and have learned much more about volcanology, but for me, that daily update was a kind of prayer activity on my part."

"It has clearly been a labour of love, and has been much appreciated. I have been to Kilauea twice, and found this site when planning the most recent trip. Being able to track the daily changes from afar is fascinating."

"I have been reading these updates for several years and enjoy reading every on. It was clear in the writing that you enjoyed what you do."

"Say it ain't so! For the past five years, your postings have been part of my daily Internet routine, in the company of the New York Times, Washington Post and the Associated Press. And it was the site I would always visit last, in the spirit of saving the best for last -- a treat that was educational, clearly written, entertaining, and able to put my mind back into proper perspective after reading about the foibles of my fellow humans."

"Your pre-dawn updates have been a valuable part of my morning routine for many years, and will be greatly missed. I've used your info numerous times to plot a safe path in to visit the flows."

"Just wanted to tell you that i check those almost every day, it really means a lot to me to be in touch with such a wonderful phenomenon. The images have always been stunningly beautiful and utterly fascinating,"

"I would like to say a very big 'thank you' for all the work you have put into the updates for Kilauea over the years. I've had a very keen interest in volcanoes for many years. Last year my dream came true when my husband and I managed to visit the Hawaiian Islands for a holiday and naturally went to Big Island to see for ourselves in reality exactly what I had been following on the website all these months."

"I want to express my deepest appreciation and thanks for all the obvious love you have put in your daily routine. I will certainly miss your well-written and many times witty updates, and I wish you all the best in your future endeavors."

"You will be missed greatly. I have enjoyed you informative updates , every morning, for the past 7 seven years. As you said, you have been able to explain the happenings on the volcano to the common man, painting wonderful pictures."

"Just a note of thanks for the many years of updates. I read it every day and have for several years. I discovered the site while planning a vacation to Maui. After following the updates and reading all of the other information posted here, I decided my son and I needed to make a day trip to the Big Island for the express purpose of visiting the lava flow. It is one of the top five things I've ever done in my life. It is because of the site and up-to-date information that we were able to experience it."

"Thank you for your enlightening work preparing the daily update. I began following your daily updates in May of 2005. We visited the park in July 2005, and I had one of the most memorable experiences of my life. Armed with the information that you and other dedicated scientists at HVO provide on the web site, we packed water, food, flashlights, head lamps and a first aid kit (plus most of our "ten essentials"). Because of the impending bench collapse (an event that I followed through your "play-by-play" like a fan listening to a ball game on the radio), we were able to hike out only to point about two miles from the ocean entry. I believe that I was much better educated, and my family much safer because of your updates. But that's not all. My son, Brendan who is now twelve, is an avid watcher of science television shows, and reader of science magazines. He has sometimes struggled in school and not given much thought to the "future". Last week, he asked me if I thought that he could go to the University of Hawaii some day to study volcanoes. Never before had he discussed college or career with me. Today he has a goal, and I cannot help but believe that you and others at HVO had something to do with this. The work that you do can yield amazing side effects. Believe it."

"For 5 years i have followed the lava flow on Kilauea, and thru your observer i have gained a lot of knowledge about the volcano. It even made my interest grow to the extent that i made a trip to the end of the Chain of Craters road to see the flow for myself."

"I will greatly miss the current daily updates. I have been avidly following the updates. I even access them via my mobile phone when not in range of computer."

"All the information you gave was very precious. Your reports were always very clear, concise and precise."

"I will miss your daily updates. Your updates have given me my daily "fix" of the volcano. Thanks for your efforts for the past 7!!! Years. We truly enjoyed the updates and the photos, it was like we were there with you."

"I've so enjoyed the eruption information and say "Mahalo nui loa" to "the observer"."

"Thank you so much for your observations and reports. I visited the volcano when it first erupted. Your daily observations have helped me to relive that experience and to see all the new activity which has gone on. Thanks for the updates as I visited and read each one now for the last 3 years."

"I have so thoroughly enjoyed your updates since we first saw the volcano in 2001. We now have a timeshare on the Big Island and go back every other year and never miss a volcano visit. It is a magical place and you keep the magic alive for us even when we are home in Maryland. Thank you, thank you. You will be missed."

"I have deeply appreciated being informed about my favorite volcano. I have enjoyed the educational aspect as well as just feeling like I was almost there looking at it with you."

"I've been fascinated by Kilauea since a trip to Hawaii in the early 1970s, and a look at the Kilauea current update on the HVO site has been part of my morning every day since a 2000 visit. Thank you so much for the updates and the wonderful photos. Your explanations have indeed been informative to an interested lay reader, and I've enjoyed your efforts tremendously."

"I, for one, have checked out your report at least once a day over the past umpteen years and found it fascinating, to say the least. The pictures are great but your commentary was the best part. Thanks again for the gift you've given so many - from the heart, not from the work plan as you so eloquently stated."

"I will miss the daily update! Just so you know-- I have enjoyed them, looked forward to them, and shared them with family, friends, and students when I was teaching. It was how I started my day (yes, even before my email and the weather), and sometimes I would check back more than that to see what new developments were occurring. This started about ten years ago. Over the years, the reports and pictures were anticipated like a special treat. For example, the .avi files of the lava flows were great and even helped some of my family understand what it was I was trying to explain! Bench and delta collapse with the pictures of pre-collapse fissures helped explain some geologic hazards in other settings to non-geologists. You have given a service many appreciate."

"Just read your last update. You will be missed, darl'n. I toured the Islands with twelve other geologists, waaay back in 1980. It has been a blast to get online and watch all the places I drove over or hiked into get covered and re-covered with lava."

"Over the last 3 years I have viewed your web site always waiting to see what the obsurver has written. He has give great information about the eruption and great pictures."

"We would like to thank the kind person who has for years been writing every day the current updates of the volcano. We, as a company here on Maui, have passed this information on to a lot of locals and visitors who wanted to know what is happening at Kilauea and the lava delta. The written articles and photos have been very educational and informative to so many people."

"I moved here 1 ? years ago and I have been a devoted reader of your updates on a daily basis. I looked forward to the morning's news of the lava and often shared the latest events and even printed out the photos for friends and family to look at."

"We've been out on the lava many times in the last 10 yrs. I assume the man I keep running into in the wee hours of the morning was "the observer". His words have saved us from wasting time or have directed us accurately to the lava. We will miss him.. Thank him if you can."

"I just wanted to express my gratitude for the current updates that are given every day. I want them to know that they were deeply appreciated. I am a third grade teacher and I have always had a deep love and passion for geological science. I have been so fascinated with Kilauea."

"I have been a daily reader for the last four years. Your fascinating updateshave allowed this non-technical reader to follow the eruption progress."

"I wish to thank "your observer" who has provided his extremely informative and well-written early morning reports of Kilauea's ongoing eruption actvity over the past several years. Personally, I have "tuned" almost every other day for about three years and enjoyed his "ring side" accounts of this exciting phenomenon. In fact I have said to my wife on numerous occasions, as soon as the reports indicate a significant increase in the activity, we are returning immediately to our favourite Big Island to have another wonderful experience."

"Please thank the person who has been providing the daily observations of the Kilauea volcano eruption. I have enjoyed logging in each day to see what has been happening."

"I was in Hawaii six years ago and fall in love with the volcano. It has been the most wonderfull .. (I cannot find a word). Anyway, since then I have kept contact with the volcano through your senses. Everytime I read any of your updates I live again my own hike on the lava field, at night, the sound of my boots, the smell, the lava entering the sea, everything. Thank you, we will miss you."

"We have enjoyed your observations and comments on the volcano for the past several years. You've made the activities of Kilauea Volcano so understandable for us all Thank you for your dedication in sharing one of nature's most fascinating activities with all of us who are not living on the Big Island. It has truly been a labor of love by you. My husband and I have had the pleasure of meeting you in person twice on our trips to Hawaii. You always had time to visit and that was so appreciated. Best wishes to you and please know that you're writing humor will be missed by all of us."

"Your witty and informative updates will be sorely missed. I visited Kiluea in 2004, and my hike out onto the lava flow was an unforgettable experience. Since then I have visited the HVO website and read your commentary each morning to keep up with the activity, and have learned a great deal about volcanism and Kilauea from your comments. The terminology and explanations by the Observer have been a great education for us and we are always eager to learn more."

"I want you to know that I have checked the Hawaiian Volcano website everyday for over two years. I am a computer teacher. Our students love monitoring the volcano. You made complex things much easier for our students to understand. My guess is that there will be many future volcanologists in our group of students."

"thank you, thank you. After many years of dreaming about it, I finally made it Kilauea in April 2005. It was a life-changing, life-affirming event. I have been passionately devouring your daily updates and the images since I found your informative, readable, fascinating journal. You struck the perfect balance between conversational and technical. Thanks for making my days so rich. You will be missed."

"I learned a lot before our visit and I've continued to check out your updates since then."

"I looked forward to each day for the updates. To be able to witness the eruption on a daily basis would be a dream come true. I would read the reports and then use these would to revisit my personal visits with my sons and our hiking experiences while we were there. These memories are some of my fondest memories of my time spent with my sons. As they grow older and also myself it has allowed me to share a moment with them involving a new creation of this wonderful world of our."

"I have logged in almost daily for 5 or 6 years now, just to read your latest updates on Kilauea. What a treasure your reports have been. It is wonderful to be able to keep tabs of one of the most incredible of natural wonders."

"the updates over time have contributed greatly to my understanding of the on-going processes, and Ihave been able to relate the present forms observed in basalt flows on the Snake River Plain in Idaho and elsewhere, with the formational processes at the Pulama Pali, Banana Delta and East Lae'apuki. I also added quite a few new words to my vocabulary like kipuka, shatter rings, etc. Your efforts were greatly appreciated."

"Thank you for the years of fascinating updates with great detail and your signature sense of humor. I've appreciated all of those early morning trips you made and loved reading what was going on in one of my favorite parts of the world."

"Thank you for the work ethic that kept you at it, day after day. There are many of us around the world who have appreciated your window onto the volcano."

"Many thanks to the observer. I have read his reports daily for 5+ years. Very, very well done."

"Having read your final entry of 17 July 2006, I am actually grieving. I have been reading your work for over five years now, having discovered the website while I was preparing for a once-in-a-lifetime trip to the Big Island. I am deeply grateful for what you have given to your readers, myself included. You have taught me a great deal about the geology of volcanoes in general and this one in particular. But your real gift is that you have conveyed your own excitement abou this particular terrain and its processes. As a non-scientist with a lifelong interest in geology, and as person fascinated by volcanism, it has been a delight to be able to read your reports and feel like I'm back there with you. When my brothers and sisters, for my 50th birthday, told me they'd like to give me a trip to anywhere within reason, I instantly told them I wanted to see an erupting volcano. I spent the week on the Big Island. I'd head back to Hawaii in a heartbeat, if I could afford it. Reading your reports has been the next best thing to being there, and I will miss your voice."

"The change in the observer gives me an opportunity to express my appreciation for the well written comments, subtle humor and love of the volcano that were so expertly expressed over the last seven years. My daily work routine includes checking the update from here in California, not only to be aware of the activity of the volcano, but also for the simple pleasure of reading "my" observer's prose."

"The HVO website and your comments and advice made this trip seriously wonderful experience. The Kilauea visit was on my "100 things to do before you die" list. Your lucid, humorous, timely, informative comments made my visit to Hawaii a memorable experience. Since then visits to the HVO website have been almost a daily ritual."

"When I saw this weekend that you were planning on making an important announcement today, I had a feeling in the pit of my stomach that you would be telling us you were moving on. Unfortunately, I was right. We went to the Big Island in 2001 and spent hours hiking over Pulama Pali, getting amazing pictures of the lava flows and generally having a great time. I loved the volcano, and you made it possible to stay connected, to see it evolving, to learn and to continue to have it in our lives."

"As an amateur volcanologist (they pay me to teach Science, but somehow it winds up being about volcanoes) I have enjoyed my daily forays to the Kilauea Eruption Update."

"Dear "your observer", thank you so much for your long devotion to Kilauea and its everyday life. And, as it goes in all countries for a passionate thanks: BRAVO!!!! I was, amongst others, pleased to read your simple yet precise and interesting prose. Farewell and a bientot, as we say in Paris,"

"I have been reading the daily updates since prior to 2000 (maybe even for the full 7 years) and they have been an important part of my daily routine. I appreciate the work that the writer has done and would like them to know they were enlightening and interesting. The descriptions and pictures have allowed me to experience something that I probably would never have gotten a chance to see. Hopefully, I'll get to visit Kiluea in the next few years and experience it firsthand. The daily updates have sparked my curiosity to the point that I am compelled to visit sometime in the future. The Observer said it was a gift to be able to write the daily updates... well, it was a gift to all of us to have the opportunity to read them. Thank You!"

"I looked forward to checking the updates every day to learn what was happening on the volcano and to have a good chuckle or two from time to time. Please pass along my thanks for all the hours and the efforts put into the updates over the years. Keeping up with Kilauea has been enlightening and entertaining over the years."

"I was somewhat saddened to read your farewell note today. I've been a daily reader of your updates since I believe 1999 or so and sincerely appreciate your efforts in providing the daily updates. I dreamed about visiting an active volcano with accessible lava flows. Since 1999, I've visited the big island three times. Your reports were invaluable and successfully guided my itinerary while on the island."

"i daily have the volcano news update as the highlite of my life. the work you provided is priceless, & has been a new inspiration in my life daily. i hope the same daily reports will continue to happen, for if not, i may loose the intent to go to the computer as the 1st thing to do everyday. i truely checked this everyday as the 1st things to do on computer, & this has been a great happiness in my life."

"We shall miss you old friend, and old friend you are after years of reading your "updates." As I have frequently mentioned to my wife, "This was written by a scientist, a scientist who writes with the pen and soul of a poet!" Thank you for the words, the beautiful photographs and for sharing them with those of us who are unable to be there in person."

"It always seemed as if you truly loved sharing Kilauea's many moods and exciting changes with the world."

"Thanks Thanks Thanks Just visiting the web site felt like seeing a old friend With a old friend. Many hrs watching the volcano myself, your notes kept it alive for me, keeping me always eager to get back again."

"I look at the HVO site almost every day. The longest I did not check the site was when we had a major windstorm [Hurricane Elvis] in Memphis in July 2003, which knocked out electrical power for over 300,000 electrical customers."

"I have enjoyed the volcano reports so much over the past years, even planning a trip based on what I see."

"Thank you so much for your daily updates....I have flown in a helicopter over Pu'u O'o twice and was amazed....your descriptions for several years have enhanced those viewings.... I personally will miss your daily writings. Ever since my first visit to the volcano when I nearly melted my hiking boots standing on the warm lava, your insights brought be from the mainland to my favorite place in the world. When we are there again I will be thinking of you and how much joy and inspiration you brought me, even though I don't even know your name... it would be nice to know your next assignment, so that those who have grown to appreciate you so much can still enjoy your exceptional talents."

"I would like to express my appreciation of the regular updates from you observer. As a geologist I have enjoyed keeping up to date with the activity of the volcano since we visited. It has made it rather special for us."

"I just want to say Thank you for providing the update. I was a volunteer in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park in the year 2000. Since then I checked the eruption update every morning and it made me feel that I was there in a way."

"Sad to see you go. You were much appreciated in my daily treks into Kilauea. You will be missed."

"I wanted to thank you for your observations and postings over the last three years. My heart aches to live on the Big Island."

"I go and read your updates every day - your hard work has been much enjoyed. I wish you all the best for the future."

"His/her descriptions and discussions helped me tremendously when I visited Kilauea this summer. I am only an amateur geologist; I am a practicing physician in South Louisiana (where Mother Nature's show for us is primarily meteorological, not geological!), but your observer made geological/vulcanological terms clear to me in a painterly, informal style. I will miss him/her."

"Since childhood I've been fascinated with rocks. In 01 my husband and I visited the Big Island and a surface flow and ocean entry were happening. Amazing. I've enjoyed the daily updates and have had many "lava moments" from the visual and written information."

"Thank you for your observations. About 4 years ago my 25 year old daughter and I stumbled upon this website. We've often alerted each other to interesting facts or pictures we've seen on the website. Though we've been nothing more than "arm-chair volcanolgists", we've had people tell us that we seem to really know and enjoy what we're talking about. Thanks to you we've been able to share with them your observations and this web-site."

"I have been reading your notes every day for several years now and I have enjoyed them immensely. I am just a lowly layperson when it comes to geology & volcanology but your notes have been fascinating and I have learned a lot. Since I first set foot on Halemaumau in 1984, I have been in love with Kilauea. Your commentaries have been a way for me to "keep my feet on" Kilauea even though I am not there."

"best wishes, and thanks. I'll miss the tone of the reports. I read them every day for the past few years--in fact it's become a morning routine."

"From the moment you step on the mountain you form a relationship with her, Kilauea. It is an experience to some, like myself, that will stay with you forever. It has been a morning ritual to come to work, get a cup of coffee and see how her day is going. You have made this possible with daily updates and photos."

"I have been reading your updates for years. I appreciate your efforts and dedication. I cannot express it any more clearly than to simply say THANK YOU. I hope this expression of gratitude eventually find its way to you."

"I appreciate all your timeless effort in passing on your obervations. I have enjoyed almost every update on a daily basis for the last 5 years. Since I went to Hawaii for the first time. My daily ritual of reading your amazingly simple yet detailed view of the erution has kept my interest thru the years."

"I have thoroughly enjoyed reading the updates as part of my world news ritual every morning for the past several years. HVO is the way I start every morning. it is a brief escape from the daily work life"

"NOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO! Don't goooooooooooo Every workday morning in North Dakota, first thing, I check in with you for my daily fix. You have explained things so well, have a marvelous eye for photographs, and an appreciation of sheer beauty. Your successor (note: not "replacement" cuz you'll never be replaced) has BIG shoes to fill!"

"Each day since my visit to "The Big Island" a year and a half ago, I have visited your website. The daily updates have provided many hours of enjoyment and enlightenment."

"THANK YOU!!! I made it an (almost) daily practice to visit the website, read the updates, and reminisce about our Feb, 2002 two-week stay on the Big Island."

"Thank you for sharing your observations over the years. Your humor will be missed. You have taught our family to know and maybe understand a little more about this incredible geologic event."

"I am one of the major fans of your daily Kilauea observations, and have very much enjoyed the commentaries."

"Could we see a picture of our "observer", just once, so we can wave "thanks and goodbye"? Loved his reports and will miss him."

"We have thoroughly enjoyed his contributions over the years and will be missed. We use the HVO updates everyday in our updates of volcanoes from all over the world. WELL DONE !!" skip past bottom navigational bar

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Updated: July 20, 2006 (pnf)