January 12, 2017 Kīlauea
November 21 breakout remains active and Kamokuna ocean entry continues
The November 21 breakout from the episode 61g lava flow remains active. The tip is 2.4 km (1.5 mi) straight-line from the vent, and the furthest active lava is roughly 600 m (660 yd) back from the tip. The breakout, extending to the lower right of the image, can be identified by its light silver color. Puʻu ʻŌʻō is visible in the upper left of the photo.
Left: The Kamokuna ocean entry remains active. On December 31, approximately 21 acres of delta collapsed into the ocean. The remaining ~2.5 acres can be seen at the base of the sea cliff in long narrow sections. On the lower right of the photo, a scarp is visible where a portion of the old sea cliff collapsed. Degassing from the 61g lava tube is visible from the ocean entry to the upper right of the photo, and Puʻu ʻŌʻō is visible in the top middle of the photo. Right: A close up view of where approximately 4 acres of old sea cliff fell into the ocean during the delta collapse on December 31. The far eastern end of this collapse (right), is where the old public viewing area was located prior to the collapse.
On the left is a normal photograph of the ocean entry, which produces a robust steam plume and an area of discolored water extending out from the entry point. The thermal image on the right shows how this area of discolored water corresponds to scalding water temperatures.
January 3, 2017 Kīlauea
Ongoing activity at Kamokuna ocean entry
Left: Part of what's left of the eastern Kamokuna lava delta following the New Year's Eve collapse can be seen in the center foreground of this image. Visible cracks on the surface of this rocky shelf indicate potential instability and serve as reminders for visitors to the lava viewing area to heed all warning signs. Right: A telephoto lens captured the cascade of lava streaming from the lava tube. Hot lava mixing with cool seawater produces an explosive interaction that results in fragmented lavaspatter, Pele's hair, and black sandflying upward, landing on the sea cliff above the ocean entry and being thrown seaward. These fragments pose a hazard to anyone who ventures too close to the ocean entry by land or by sea.
A closer view of lava cascading from the lava tube at the Kamokuna ocean entry, with spatter (fragments of molten lava) and black sand (volcanic glass) being thrown skyward.
Left: A glove provides scale for spatter (lighter gray, shiny fragments) that landed on the sea cliff above the Kamokuna ocean entry. Right: Pele's hair, filaments of volcanic glass, formed from the explosive interaction of hot lava entering the ocean, accumulates on the lava surface above the ocean entry. Some is also blown far downwind of the ocean entry.
January 1, 2017 Kīlauea
Kamokuna lava delta collapse also takes part of old sea cliff
The rocky shelf at the base of the sea cliff is all that remains of the Kamokuna lava delta following the New Year's Eve collapse (Dec. 31, 2016), which sent acres of rock plunging into the sea. The exposed lava tube continued to feed a cascade of molten rock down the steep sea cliff, beginning the process of building another lava delta at the ocean entry, as this photo was taken on Jan. 1, 2017. When the lava delta collapsed, solid and molten fragments of lava and superheated steam exploded skyward, creating tremendous hazard for anyone who ignored the warning signs and entered the closed area on land or ventured too close to the lava delta by boat.
In addition to most of the Kamokuna lava delta disappearing into the ocean on New Year's Eve day, a large section of the older sea cliff east of the delta also collapsed. Here you can see the "bite" taken out by the collapse of the sea cliff. At right, an HVO geologist, donning a hard hat in case of another collapse and explosion, mapped the new edge of the coast (see map at https://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/maps/).
December 4, 2016 Kīlauea
Time-lapse sequence of lava lake activity at Halemaʻumaʻu
This video, at 50x speed to illustrate the motion of the lava lake surface, shows typical lava lake activity within Halemaʻumaʻu Crater. Lava upwells in the northern portion of the lake (left side of image), with most of the lake surface flowing towards the south (right side). Spattering is active within a small grotto at the southeast margin of the lake.
December 2, 2016 Kīlauea
Another rockfall triggers an explosive event in the summit lava lake
As you watch this VIDEO CLIP, note the rocky ledge (yellow arrow) at the bottom of the webcam image. At 6:58 a.m., HST, today, this large slab of the summit vent wall, located directly below HVO's HMcam, collapsed. Rocks falling into the lava lake triggered a small explosive event that bombarded the rim of Halemaʻumaʻu Crater with spatter (fragments of molten lava), similar to Monday's (Nov. 28) event. These rockfalls and explosions, which occur without warning, in addition to sulfur dioxide gas emissions, are why this hazardous area remains closed.
November 30, 2016 Kīlauea
Views of the Kamokuna ocean entry
A close-up of one of several streams of lava entering the ocean at the front of the Kamokuna lava delta on Kīlauea's south flank. The billowy white plume formed by the interaction of hot lava and seawater may look harmless, but it is a mixture of superheated steam, hydrochloric acid, and tiny shards of volcanic glassall of which should be avoided.
A wide view of the ocean entry, showing the broad lava delta on the right. Lava deltas (new land formed at the ocean entry) are built on a foundation of rubble, so they can (and do) collapse without warning. Because of this, lava deltas are one of the most hazardous areas on Kīlauea, and people are urged to enjoy the beauty of the ocean entry from a safe distance.
November 29, 2016 Kīlauea
Ocean entry continues, with breakout near Puʻu ʻŌʻō
Lava continues to enter the ocean at Kamokuna, where a lava delta about 19 acres in size has been built. The gravel emergency access road is visible on both sides of the surface flow that cut it. The view is to the southwest.
Left: Large cracks parallel to the shoreline are still visible on the Kamokuna delta, indicating instability. The view is to the northeast. Right: Lava is transported to the Kamokuna ocean entry, its plume is visible in the distance, via a lava tube. The trace of an active lava tube is often identifiable by a line of fume, as seen here for the episode 61g lava tube above the Pūlama pali.
A breakout from the episode 61g vent at the head of the lava tube on November 21 sent lava streaming downslope. That breakout was still active when observed on November 29 and had traveled about 1.3 km (0.8 miles), partly surrounding Puʻu Halulu, a tephra cone formed in 1983 at the start of the Puʻu ʻŌʻō eruption. The PEcam webcam looks upslope from Puʻu Halulu toward Puʻu ʻŌʻō, which is shrouded by clouds (top background).
Typical lava lake activity in Halemaʻumaʻu
Kīlauea's summit lava lake in Halemaʻumaʻu is about 255 m (~840 ft) long (left to right in the image) and 195 m (~640 ft) wide. From this perspective, magma rises into the lake near its north edge (upper left) and circulates to the south, where it sinks all along the south margin of the lake. The rim of Halemaʻumaʻu is at the right edge of the photo, and the closed visitor overlook is hidden beneath the fume at upper right.
Left: Another view of Halemaʻumaʻu with its lava lake. The view is to the southeast. Right: The U.S. Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory and the National Park Service Jaggar Museum are perched together near the summit of Kīlauea, about 1.7 km (~1.1 mi) from the lava lake in Halemaʻumaʻu, producing a plume in the background.
November 28, 2016 Kīlauea
Rockfall triggers an explosive event in summit lava lake
VIDEO CLIP captured by HVO webcam: At 11:59 a.m., a rockfall from the south wall of Halemaʻumaʻu Crater triggered a small explosive event in the summit lava lake. The explosion threw spatter (fragments of molten lava) onto the rim of the crater, mostly to the west of the former visitor overlook. This area has been closed to the public since 2008 due to ongoing volcanic hazards, including explosive events like the one that happened today.
This VIDEO CLIP shows a cloud of ash and spatter being thrown from the summit lava lake during today's explosive event. The images were captured by an HVO webcam located on the rim of Halemaʻumaʻu Crater, just above the rockfall area. Spatter falling onto the crater rim is a reminder of the hazards that exist in this area, which has been closed since 2008.
Left: HVO scientists visited the rim of Halemaʻumaʻu this afternoon (11/28) to collect samples of tephra and check for equipment damage. This view, taken on the approach to the Halemaʻumaʻu, shows the tephra deposit on the crater rim. New spatter is seen as dark lumps scattered across the center of the image on top of older brown-colored Pele's hair. The closed Halemaʻumaʻu overlook is in the background at right; HVO and the Jaggar Museum are on the caldera rim in the distance near upper left. Right: This view shows the main body of the tephra deposit, which comprises the dark fragments scattered from the foreground to the web camera in the background (the HTcam thermal webcam). The rim of Halemaʻumaʻu is to the right; the closed overlook is behind the photographer.
Left: The larger spatter bombs bounced after hitting, leaving divots in the layer of Pele's hair that blankets the area, as seen here. These bombs are the diameter of large dinner plates. Right: The largest spatter bombs traveled the farthest, perhaps aided by momentum, landing on the trail between the Halemaʻumaʻu parking area and overlook. Upon landing, these bombs splatted to form complexly shaped bomb fragments connected by thick strands and masses of Pele's hair.
November 26, 2016 Kīlauea
A clear evening provides stunning views of the summit lava lake
A clear evening provided good views of the lava lake within Halemaʻumaʻu Crater at the summit of Kīlauea Volcano. Spattering was active along the south margin (left side) of the lava lake, with the gas plume drifting to the southwest (upper left). Mauna Loa, visible in the far distance towering above Kīlauea, provided a stunning backdrop to the lava lake as the sun was setting. HVO and Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park's Jaggar Museum, perched on the rim of Kīlauea's summit caldera, can be seen on the skyline in the upper right part of the photo.
Left: This close-up view of the lava lake surface on the south side of the lake shows a typical spreading zone. In this image, the crustal plates on both sides of the incandescent line are migrating to the south (toward the lower left corner of the photo), but the crust on the left side is moving more rapidly to the south than the crust on the right. As the semi-solid crust pulls apart, molten lava upwells between the two plates to create new crust. Right: A slightly wider view of the lake surface, encompassing the photo at left. The lake surface is migrating to the south (lower left corner of image), towards the spatter source visible in the lava lake photo above.
November 23, 2016 Kīlauea
Breakout on the 61g lava flow field
Left: HVO geologists hiked across the 61g flow field to investigate this breakout at the base of the pali on Kīlauea Volcano's south flank. Toes of active pāhoehoe lava were slowly advancing on top of older ʻaʻā and pāhoehoe flows erupted earlier this year. Right: A close-up view showing the ropy texture that forms on the surface of pāhoehoe lava.