February 22, 2017 Kīlauea
61g coastal lava flow remains active
Today (February 22, 2017), the breakout along the eastern edge of Kīlauea Volcano's episode 61g flow remains active and had advanced approximately 570 m (620 yards) since it was last mapped on February 14. The flow front consisted of sluggish, oozing pāhoehoe that was approximately 730 m (0.5 miles) from the ocean and 540 m (0.3 miles) from the emergency route road. Channelized lava flows have been recently reported on Pūlama pali, but no active channels were seen by HVO geologists while working in the area this afternoon. They did, however, observe scattered breakouts on the pali.
February 14, 2017 Kīlauea
A Valentine's Day view of Kīlauea Volcano's summit lava lake
Today, Kīlauea Volcano's summit lava lake level was 21 m (69 ft) below the vent rim. A long stretch of active spattering was visible along the east lake margin from the rim of Halemaʻumaʻu Crater, an area that remains closed to the public due to ongoing hazards. The usual spatter source to the southeast was small by comparison. In the afternoon light, the dark lava flows on either side of the vent rim were quite visible. These flows spilled onto the floor of Halemaʻumaʻu Crater in April-May 2015, and again in October 2016, when the lava lake level briefly rose above the vent rim several times.
A telephoto view of the east lake margin showed that the spattering was focused in small embayments created by promontories of cooled, congealed lava jutting from the vent wall.
At times, spattering along the east lake margin reached heights of 69 m (2030 ft), as shown in this telephoto image.
61g flow coastal breakout still active
The 61g flow breakout that started on February 10 on Pulama Pali was still active today. The flow front (shown here) is approximately 2.3 km (1.4 mi) from the base of the pali and 1.2 km (0.75 mi) from the ocean. The flow front is on the eastern side of the 61g flow field, and is outside the National Park boundary.
February 12, 2017 Kīlauea
High-tech instruments track volcanic gases at Kīlauea Volcano
Left: An FTIR instrument is set up on the rim of Halemaʻumaʻu Crater to measure volcanic gases from the summit lava lake. The open-path Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer continuously measures the gases in a volcanic plume, measuring the relative abundance of each. Most of the gas emitted during a volcanic eruption is water vapor (H2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), and sulfur dioxide(SO2).
Right: HVO's geochemist uses a Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR) instrument to track volcanic gases emitted from the lava lake with Halemaʻumaʻu Crater. These measurements help detect changes in gas composition, which can provide insight into the inner workings of Kīlauea Volcano.
View of the lava lake within Halemaʻumaʻu Crater from the FTIR spectrometer monitoring location. At Hawaiian volcanoes, magma ascends from the mantle more than 60 km (about 40 mi) below the surface, to a reservoir less than 2 km (about 1.2 mi) deep. As the pressure decreases, the gases dissolved in the magma bubble out and escape. Magma continues to rise through a shallow conduit to the Halemaʻumaʻu lava lake, where it continues to degas (the blue haze is indicative of sulfur gases).
February 8, 2017 Kīlauea
"Firehose flow" visible from public lava viewing area
Left: The "firehose flow" at Kīlauea Volcano's Kamokuna ocean entry was clearly visible from the public lava viewing area established by Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park. The viewing area is 800 meters (about one-half mile) from the ocean entry, but affords excellent views of the lava flow. Right: A telephoto lens captures a closer view of the Kamokuna "firehose flow."
VIDEO: Kīlauea Volcano's Kamokuna ocean entry. Today, the "firehose flow" could be clearly seen from the public lava viewing area, 800 meters (about one-half mile) east of the ocean entry, in Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park.
Left: Explosive interactions between the lava and ocean can throw spatter high onto the cliff around the ocean entry. Spatter in photo is visible scattered across the sea cliff with a glove for scale. Right: Close up view of the Pele's hair and Limu o Pele that blankets the sea cliff around the Kamokuna ocean entry. The coverage is especially thick in the areas downwind of the ocean entry which may make it difficult to see all areas of extended cracks.
February 2, 2017 Kīlauea
Sea cliff at Kamokuna ocean entry collapses
HVO geologists hiked to the Kamokuna ocean entry today to assess the status of the sea cliff. When they arrived, the "firehose" flow was no longer visible. However, spatter (bits of molten lava) and black sand flying through the steam plume indicated that lava was still flowing into the ocean and interacting explosively with seawater. Just below the left side of the steam cloud, a small shelf of the Kamokuna lava delta that survived the New Year's Eve collapse can be seen.
Within minutes of HVO geologists reaching the ocean entry site, the sea cliff seaward of the hot crack (see Jan. 30 images) collapsed with no warning; fortunately, they were far enough away to not be in harm's way. The top photo was snapped just before the collapse occurred. The bottom image shows the remaining sea cliff after the collapse. Yellow arrows point to the same rocks in both photos for comparison.
VIDEO: The section of sea cliff above the ocean entry collapsed today at about 12:55 p.m. The sea cliff had become increasingly unstable as a large crack 510 m (1633 ft) inland of the ocean entry had more than doubled in width, from 30 cm (1 ft) to 70 cm (2.5 ft), over the past several days. A video camera, which had just been set up to monitor movement of the crack near the sea cliff, captured the moment of collapse.
The entire section of the sea cliff that was seaward of the hot crack collapsed, except for a small block of rock (left) at the eastern end of the crack; this piece of the sea cliff, estimated to be 30 m long and 5 m wide (98 x 16 ft), remains highly unstable and could collapse with no warning. During the collapse, rocks hitting the ocean generated a wave that propagated outward from the coast. After the collapse, no lava was visible, but is apparently still flowing into the sea based on the continuing steam plume and explosions of spatter.
February 1, 2017 Kīlauea
Crack above Kīlauea's ocean entry has widened, increasing instability of sea cliff
The hot crack near the sea cliff, in the immediate area of the ocean entry, has widened significantly over the past four days. On Saturday, January 28, the crack was 30 cm wide (1 foot). Today, HVO geologists in protective gear briefly entered the area and measured the crack as being 75 cm (2.5 feet). In this image comparison, the yellow stars show corresponding points in the two images. The arrow also shows how much the crack has widened.
Remarkably, grinding noises could be heard coming from the crack, and the block of sea cliff on the makai (ocean) side of the crack could be seen to move slightly. These signs indicate that the section of sea cliff around the ocean entry is highly unstable and could collapse at any time.
From the lava viewing area established by Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park, you can witness Kīlauea Volcano's ocean entry from a safe distance. With binoculars or a telephoto camera lens, spectacular views and photos are possible (as seen here)without risking your life by entering the closed area. As lava streams into the ocean, explosive interactions between the molten lava and cool seawater hurl spatter and rock fragments skyward, often as high as the sea cliff, which is about 28 m (92 ft) high.
Left: Using a telephoto lens, spatter and glassy rock fragments (black sand) from the explosive interaction of molten lava and seawater can be seen flying skyward and seaward. At times, these fragments were thrown high enough to land on the sea cliff above the ocean entryone of many hazards impacting this area. Right: Detailed views of the "firehose" flow streaming from the lava tube, spatter, and rock fragments were provided by zooming the telephoto lens in even closer.
January 30, 2017 Kīlauea
Ground crack at Kīlauea ocean entry is cause for concern
Due to the instability of the sea cliff above the ocean entry and other hazards created by molten lava flowing into the sea, Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park has established a viewing area (noted by yellow arrow in photo) from which the ocean entry can be seen in relative safety.
Left: A thermal image taken during HVO's overflight of Kīlauea Volcano's ocean entry on Jan. 25, 2017, revealed a hot ground crack in the sea cliff just above where lava is flowing into the sea. Because the crack suggested an unstable sea cliff, HVO geologists briefly visited the site on foot for closer observations and measurements this past weekend.
Right: Carefully approaching the site in protective gear on Jan. 28, HVO geologists determined that the eastern end of the hot crack was about 30 cm (11.8 in) wide and deeply cut into recent lava atop the older sea cliff. The western end could not be accessed due to poor air quality, spatter fallout, and other safety concerns. This crack could be a precursor to collapse of an unstable section of the sea cliff, making the site extremely dangerous for anyone who ventures too closely to the ocean entry by land or by sea.
Using a thermal image of the crack above Kīlauea volcano's ocean entry (steam from lava flowing into the sea is visible at the top of the left photo), HVO geologists determined that the temperature within the eastern end of the crack is up to about 220 degrees Celsius (428 degrees Fahrenheit).
At Kīlauea's ocean entry on Jan. 28 and 29, the interaction of molten lava flowing into cool seawater caused pulsating littoral explosions that threw spatter (fragments of molten lava) high into the air. Some of these incandescent clasts fell on top of the sea cliff behind the ocean entry, forming a small spatter cone. During one exceptionally large burst, spatter was thrown about twice the height of the sea cliff. These ocean entry littoral explosions, both large and small, create hazardous conditions on land and at sea.
January 29, 2017 Kīlauea
Evening views of the ocean entry
The lava stream, pouring out of the lava tube on the sea cliff at the Kamokuna ocean entry, continues and was similar to yesterday. The stream appeared wider (as viewed from this angle) today compared to yesterday, and often had holes in the thin sheet. The entry was still producing small, pulsating littoral explosions.
January 28, 2017 Kīlauea
Open lava stream continues at ocean entry
An open lava stream continues to pour out of the lava tube, perched high on the sea cliff, and into the ocean. The stream was remarkably steady today, but produced pulsating littoral explosions that threw spatter onto the sea cliff.
Left: A wider view of the ocean entry. Right: Near the base of the lava stream, just above where it impacted the water, there were commonly ripples in the stream, suggesting this was a narrow sheet of lava. These ripples can be seen on the lower right side of the lava stream. A few small, steaming clasts thrown up by a small littoral explosion are visible in front of the stream.
A close up of the stream near the spot where it exits the tube. This view was only possible with a very high magnification lens.
This video shows a wider view of the open lava stream at the ocean entry, and the frequent littoral explosions.
January 25, 2017 Kīlauea
Lava continues to stream out of tube at Kamokuna ocean entry
A steady stream of lava exiting the episode 61g lava tube pours into the ocean at the Kamokuna ocean entry. The interaction between the lava and ocean water causes explosive reactions, throwing bits of lava (seen in the photo at the base of the lava stream).
Left: Since the delta collapse on December 31, 2016 there has not been any evidence of the lava delta rebuilding. The fume trace of the 61g tube system on the coastal plain is visible up slope from the ocean entry. The cove in the sea cliff (at center) is where the ~4 acre portion of old sea cliff collapsed into the ocean after the delta fell in. The new public lava viewing area and rope line is in the lower right, and the emergency access road is just inland from the coast. Right: Misty weather created a double rainbow over Pūlama Pali and the 61g flow field. Fume trace from the tube can be seen at bottom center.
This video clip shows the lava stream - about 1-2 m or yards wide - pouring out of the tube into the Pacific Ocean, triggering pulsating explosions that are throwing bits of lava onto the top of the sea cliff.
This thermal image shows the Kamokuna ocean entry. Two plumes of hot (scalding) water branch out from the entry point. The lava stream itself is the very hot feature right of center. Just above the lava stream, about 10 meters (yards) behind the sea cliff, is a narrow line of high temperatures that appears to be a hot crack. This hot crack suggests that the sea cliff around the entry point is unstable and has the potential to collapse.