November 27, 2013 Kīlauea
Kahaualeʻa 2 flow still active in forest northeast of Puʻu ʻŌʻō
The Kahaualeʻa 2 flow remains active, and continues to slowly expand into the forest northeast of Puʻu ʻŌʻō. The photo shows the main area of vegetation fires, along the north margin of the flow. Mauna Loa can be seen in the distance in the upper right.
Left: The flow front of the Kahaualeʻa 2 flow has cut a narrow swath through forest northeast of Puʻu ʻŌʻō. The narrow lobe at the front is now inactive, with the main area of surface flows about 2km (1.2 miles) behind the end of this lobe. Some of these surface flows are slowly expanding northward into the forest, creating vegetation fires. Puʻu ʻŌʻō is in the upper left. An equivalent thermal image is shown to the right. Right: This thermal image shows the front of the Kahaualeʻa 2 flow. A narrow lobe at the very front is now inactive (evident by the slightly lower surface temperatures), while the main area of active surface flows (shown by white areas) are farther back from this leading edge.
Left: This photo looks southwest, and shows Puʻu ʻŌʻō. The northeast spatter cone on the east rim of the crater is near the center of the photo, and is the vent area for the Kahaualeʻa 2 flow. The lava tube feeding the Kahaualeʻa 2 flow extends from the northeast spatter cone down the north flank of Puʻu ʻŌʻō, in a direct line towards the lower right corner of the photo. The thermal image on the right is an equivalent view, and highlights the lava tube well. Right: This thermal image shows Puʻu ʻŌʻō (see visual photograph at left for equivalent view). Recently, the southeast and northeast spatter cones have produced small overflows out of the crater, shown clearly here by their warm temperatures. The vent for the Kahaualeʻa 2 flow is at the northeast spatter cone, and the lava tube supplying the Kahaualeʻa 2 flow is obvious as the line of elevated temperatures extending to the lower right corner of the image.
It was remarkably clear during today's overflight of Kīlauea's east rift zone. This photo is taken from Puʻu ʻŌʻō, and looks northwest. Mauna Kea is at the right, and Mauna Loa is at the left. In front of the summit of Mauna Loa, the degassing plume from the lava lake at Kīlauea's summit is rising vertically.
November 21, 2013 Kīlauea
Kahaualeʻa 2 flow and Puʻu ʻŌʻō
Left: The tip of the Kahaualeʻa 2 flow was 7.3 km (4.5 miles) from Puʻu ʻŌʻō when mapped on November 21. Active breakouts were scattered all across the flow up to about 4 km back from the front. Right: Puʻu ʻŌʻō looms in the background in this photo taken from about 4 km (2.5 miles) away. The source of the Kahaualeʻa 2 flow—a spatter cone at the northeast edge of Puʻu ʻŌʻō’s crater floor—forms the knuckle-like bump just above the center of the photo. The Kahaualeʻa 2 lava tube is marked by the fuming areas that extend to the right down the flank of Puʻu ʻŌʻō.
Spatter cones on Puʻu ʻŌʻō crater floor
Left: Lava erupted a few times from two different spatter cones on Puʻu ʻŌʻō’s crater floor over the past few weeks. These show up as the lighter-colored flows on the near (southeast) flank of Puʻu ʻŌʻō. The larger spatter cone to the right, with the obvious fume trace leading away from it to the right (marking the lava tube), is the source of the Kahaualeʻa 2 flow. Right: Incandescent skylights adorn the spatter cone and the lava tube in this close shot of the source for the Kahaualeʻa 2 flow. The lighter-colored flows in the foreground are recent flows which broke out from the near side of the spatter cone. Webcams and other monitoring equipment dot the north rim of Puʻu ʻŌʻō in the background.
November 7, 2013 Kīlauea
Kahaualeʻa 2 flow remains active at forest boundary
Left: No activity was observed on the Peace Day flow on today's overflight, meaning that the Kahaualeʻa 2 flow is now the sole active flow. The Kahaualeʻa 2 flow today had reached 6.4 km (4.0 miles) northeast of Puʻu ʻŌʻō, and was burning vegetation around the forest boundary. Right: Much of the Kahaualeʻa 2 flow has traveled over ʻaʻā from Puʻu ʻŌʻō's early activity in the 1980s. This photo shows a lobe of the Kahaualeʻa 2 flow advancing over a section of this older ʻaʻā, burning moss and small trees that have grown on the ʻaʻā clinker.
Left: Active pāhoehoe breakouts are scattered across portions of the Kahaualeʻa 2 flow. This photo shows a nice example of ropy pāhoehoe active near the flow margin. Right: Very few surface flows have been observed in Puʻu ʻŌʻō crater over the past month, but the crater today was far from quiet. The spatter cone shown here, in the northern portion of the crater, was producing a loud, continuous jetting sound resulting from gas being forced through a tiny opening at the peak.
October 23, 2013 Kīlauea
Thermal image sequence of summit lava lake motion
This thermal image sequence shows the typical motion of the lava lake in Halemaʻumaʻu Crater. For scale, the lake is about 160 meters (520 feet) wide in this view. The clip spans about 12 minutes, and is shown at 30x speed. The lava upwells along the north margin of the lava lake (in this view, near the top of the image). The crust slowly migrates towards the south, where it sinks back into the magmatic system along the south and southeast margins of the lake (bottom of image). The surface moves at roughly 0.5 meters per second, or about 1 mile per hour. The lake surface consists of numerous thin plates of crust, separated by hot cracks. As the lake surface migrates, these plates split, merge and change shape.
October 21, 2013 Kīlauea
Lava flows at forest boundary northeast of Puʻu ʻŌʻō
Left: Pāhoehoe lava on the Kahaualeʻa 2 flow invades the forest northeast of Puʻu ʻŌʻō, burning and toppling trees and creating plumes of smoke. Right: A wider view of the Kahaualeʻa 2 flow margin at the forest boundary.
This thermal image looks southwest towards the vent on Puʻu ʻŌʻō, and shows much of the Kahaualeʻa 2 flow. Hotter colors (yellow and white) represent active breakouts, while warm colors (red and purple) show recently active portions of the flow. The Kahaualeʻa 2 flow consists of numerous scattered breakouts of pāhoehoe lava, with a narrow finger of lava forming the flow front. The flow front today was 5.8 km (3.6 miles) northeast of the vent on Puʻu ʻŌʻō.
Left: A close-up view of one of the many breakouts of pāhoehoe on the Kahaualeʻa 2 flow. Right: An HVO geologist shields his face from the intense heat as he takes a sample of active lava on the Kahaualeʻa 2 flow. The chemistry of the lava is analyzed through time and used to study changes in the magmatic system.
September 19, 2013 Kīlauea
Kahaualeʻa 2 source vent and Puʻu ʻŌʻō
Left: The Kahaualeʻa 2 flow is fed from a spatter cone, shown here, on the northeast edge of Puʻu ʻŌʻō's crater floor. The spatter cone is about 8 m (26 ft) high. Right: The Kahaualeʻa 2 flow extends to the north and northeast of Puʻu ʻŌʻō. From the edge of the flow, where it first reaches the forest, Puʻu ʻŌʻō still appears to tower above the surrounding plain.
Views of Kahaualeʻa 2 flow
Left: Active breakouts on the Kahaualeʻa 2 are scattered over a broad area. Here, a breakout near the edge of the forest engulfs trees and burns dead foliage. Right: This beautiful bubble of glass, about the size of an small orange, adorns the surface of a breakout on the Kahaualeʻa 2 flow. Note the delicate bubble walls stretched so thin that they grade from the color of honey to transparent.
August 27, 2013 Kīlauea
Halemaʻumaʻu and HVO
The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory and Jaggar Museum are located near the summit of Kīlauea and are visible atop the cliff to the right. They are about 2 km (1.25 miles) north-northwest of the lava lake in Halemaʻumaʻu, fuming (but not directly visible) at the left edge of the photo.
Puʻu ʻŌʻō and northeast spatter cone
Left: Early morning view of Puʻu ʻŌʻō, looking toward the southwest. The fume rising from the bottom of the photo marks the trace of the lava tube carrying lava to the Kahaualeʻa 2 flow front. Right: The Kahaualeʻa 2 flow is fed from a spatter cone on the northeast edge of Puʻu ʻŌʻō’s crater. Today, this spatter cone, which is about 6 m (20 ft) tall, was weakly spattering from it top.
August 23, 2013 Kīlauea
Small explosion at Halemaʻumaʻu
Left: At 9:48 PM on Friday, August 23, a collapse of a piece of the wall above the lava lake in Halemaʻumaʻu triggered a small explosion. The explosion bombarded the rim of Halemaʻumaʻu around the old visitor overlook with molten gobs of spatter as big as dinner plates. Dense lithic fragments from the collapsed wall, and at least as large as a baseball, were also thrown back out of the vent and onto the rim. These images were recorded by a webcam positioned on the rim of Halemaʻumaʻu, about 120 m (395 ft) above the lake surface. The smaller time-stamp at the upper left corner is the correct acquisition time (the larger time-stamp is based on the camera clock, which drifts over time). Right:
August 16, 2013 Kīlauea
Ocean entry near Kupapaʻu Point hangs on
Left: The ocean entry east of the National Park boundary near Kupapaʻu Point remains weak, with a wispy plume, as seen in this photo looking southwest along the coast. Right: The main entry point of the Kupapaʻu ocean entry comprises a few small streams of lava, seen here cascading into the water.
Rain, steam, smoke, and lava
The Kahaualeʻa 2 flow continues to invade the forest line north of Puʻu ʻŌʻō. Poor weather prevented good views but made for an eerie scene.
Lava lake in Halemaʻumaʻu at a relatively high level
The lava lake in Halemaʻumaʻu was 35 m (115 ft) below the floor of the crater this morning. The lake is about 220 m (720 ft) long and 160 m (525 ft) wide.
Left: A thin gas plume permitted a decent view of the south wall of the pit holding the lava lake in Halemaʻumaʻu. This wall is overhung by up to 15 m. Today the lava lake was not spattering at its usual point near the left side of the lake in this view. Right: Instead, the lava lake was spattering at points on the west and northwest side of the lake. This photo shows the spattering on the lake's northwest side. The pit wall to the right overhangs the lake by about 10 m (33 ft). If the lake continues to rise, pieces of this overhang may collapse (note the cracks at lower right marking planes of weakness).
August 9, 2013 Kīlauea
Satellite view of activity at summit and east rift zone
This image was captured on Friday, August 9, by the Advanced Land Imager sensor aboard NASA's Earth Observing 1 satellite, and shows Kīlauea volcano from the summit down the east rift zone. Although this is a false-color image, the color map has been chosen to mimic what the human eye would expect to see. Bright red pixels depict areas of very high temperatures, and show active lava. Two areas are active on Kīlauea. At the summit, a circulating lava lake in Halemaʻumaʻu crater produces the bright pixels at the left edge of the image. Along the east rift zone, the ongoing Puʻu ʻŌʻō eruption is now feeding two lava flows. The Peace Day flow has active surface flows on the coastal plain and an active ocean entry, just west of Kalapana village, while the Kahaualeʻa 2 flow is active at the forest boundary north of Puʻu ʻŌʻō. Satellite images such as this help fill in observational gaps between field visits.