HVO Photos & Video

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October 24, 2014 — Kīlauea


June 27th flow front approaches Cemetery Rd./Apaʻa St.

The June 27th flow remains active, and has advanced at an increased rate over the past two days. This afternoon (2 pm), the flow front was pushing ahead as a narrow lobe, and was just 135 m (150 yards) from Cemetery Rd./Apaʻa St. The vent for the June 27th flow is on Puʻu ʻŌʻō (top of photograph), which is nearly 19 km (12 miles) away.

Left: A wider view of the flow front, and its position relative to Pāhoa. This morning the flow front was 1.2 km (0.7 miles) from Pāhoa Village Road, as measured along a straight line. Pāhoa Village Road is at the bottom of the photograph. Right: A closer view of the flow front, which has split into two separate lobes. As of 2 PM, the flow was only 135 m (approximately 150 yards) from Cemetery Rd./Apaʻa St., which spans this photo. HELCO crews can be seen working to protect utility poles along the road.

Left: Another view of the two lobes that make up the flow front. Vehicles for scale. Right: Just upslope of the flow front, the flow can be seen here parallel to the dirt road. The flow in this section was only about 30 m (100 feet) wide.

Left: Another view of the flow front and Cemetery Rd./Apaʻa St., looking east. The flow front is entering an open pasture. Right: HVO geologists can be seen in the pasture mapping the flow front position.

Another view of the leading tip of the flow, as it moves into the open pasture.

A comparison of a normal photograph with a thermal image of the flow front. The white box shows the approximate area of the thermal image. The thermal image shows that high temperatures are concentrated around the leading tip of the flow, which is consistent with lava focused at the front to sustain a higher advance rate.

Left: This Quicktime movie shows a close-up view of the flow front, and its proximity to Cemetery Rd./Apaʻa St. The transfer station is also shown. Right: This Quicktime movie shows a wider view of the flow front, and pans to the right to show the flow's proximity to Pāhoa.

October 22, 2014 — Kīlauea


June 27th lava flow continues advancement towards northeast

Left: The June 27th lava flow remains active, and continues to advance towards the northeast along the northern boundary of Kaohe Homesteads subdivision. Over the past day, the leading edge of the flow has moved ahead as a narrow lobe, and covered part of a dirt road. The flow front today was 815 meters (0.5 miles) from Apaʻa St., as measured along a straight line. Right: A wider view of the flow front, showing its proximity to Apaʻa St. and the transfer station. The vent for the June 27th lava flow is on Puʻu ʻŌʻō cone, which can be seen in the upper right portion of the photograph. The residential area in the lower left corner is in the western portion of Pāhoa.

Left: A closer view of the flow front from the air, showing the narrow lobe of lava moving along the dirt road. Kaohe Homesteads is in the left side of the photograph. Puʻu ʻŌʻō can be seen in the upper right. Right: Another view of the flow front, showing the numerous smoke plumes arising from active breakouts burning vegetation at the flow margin. Kaohe Homesteads is in the left side of the photograph.

A comparison of a normal photograph of the flow front with a thermal image. The white box shows the approximate extent of the thermal image. The thermal image shows that active breakouts (white and yellow areas) are focused along the narrow lobe at the leading edge of the flow, but are also scattered for about 2 km (1.2 miles) behind the flow front.

Left: A vertical view of the lava upslope from the flow front covering the dirt road. Right: A view of the flow front from the ground, showing the pāhoehoe lava slowly moving through thick vegetation and creating thick plumes of smoke. Frequent methane explosions were occurring. These result from the cooked vegetation releasing methane, which then ignites. The explosions can range from small puffs to loud cannon-like blasts, and are an additional hazard in the immediate area of the flow margin. More information on methane explosions can be found here: http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/volcanowatch/archive/2002/02_10_17.html

Left: An HVO geologist marks the coordinates of the flow front with a GPS unit. Right: HVO geologists walk over the surface of the flow to track surface breakouts along a portion of the flow margin, about a kilometer (0.6 miles) upslope of the flow front.

Left: This Quicktime movie provides an aerial overview of the flow front. Right: This Quicktime movie was captured at the flow front, and shows a small channelized portion of the pāhoehoe flow pouring over the dirt road embankment. Gas trapped within the flow is released via occasional small bubble bursts.

October 21, 2014 — Kīlauea


Satellite image shows update on flow activity

This satellite image was captured by the Advanced Land Imager instrument onboard NASA's Earth Observing 1 satellite. Although this is a false-color image, the color map has been chosen to mimic what the human eye would expect to see. Bright red pixels depict areas of very high temperatures, and show active lava. White areas are clouds.

The image shows that the flow remains active. Most active breakouts are focused near the flow front. These breakouts extend from the leading tip of the flow back to about 2 km (1.2 miles) behind the front. Several small breakouts are also active in the area where lava is moving through ground cracks. The June 27 vent is on Puʻu ʻŌʻō, and Puʻu ʻŌʻō Crater contains several small hot spots (which are caused by several small incandescent holes on the crater floor). The newly cleared portion of Chain of Craters Road is also faintly visible near the coastline.

October 20, 2014 — Kīlauea


June 27th lava flow remains active

The June 27th lava flow remains active, with no significant advancement of the flow front since Friday, Oct 17. The flow is active along the northern boundary of Kaohe Homesteads subdivision, with brush fires along the flow margins creating thick plumes of smoke. The flow front today was 1.1 km (0.7 miles) from the closest point on Apaʻa St., as measured along a straight line. Although there has been little net advancement of the flow front over the past week, breakouts persist behind the flow front.

A comparison of a normal photograph of the flow front with a thermal image. Although the leading edge of the flow has advanced only a slight amount over the past week (about 100 m, or 110 yards), active portions behind the flow front have moved at a faster rate. Surface flows along the southern margin of the flow have advanced 575 m (630 yards) over the past week, and are now close to the leading edge of the flow. The thermal image shows that other breakouts are scattered behind the flow front.

Left: Upslope from the flow front, several breakouts are active around the crack system. These surface flows (marked by the smoke plumes) have filled in a ground crack that is immediately north of another crack. The southern crack, marked by the white dotted line, is the main crack that lava is traveling along below the surface. The lava is moving deep within this crack over a span of about 1.5 km (nearly one mile), before it surfaces at a pad of lava visible at the bottom of the photograph. Right: Puʻu ʻŌʻō Crater remains filled with thick fume, but recent views with the naked eye and thermal camera confirm that little change has occurred in the crater over recent weeks. The fume masks a handful of small incandescent openings on the crater floor.

Small explosion of spatter from the lava lake in Halemaʻumaʻu Crater

Left: A collapse of rock from the wall of Halemaʻumaʻu Crater occurred yesterday (Sunday, October 19) around 1:15 am, with rocks impacting the lake and triggering an explosion of spatter. The scar left by this collapse is visible as the light-colored area marked in the photo. The spatter fell around the Halemaʻumaʻu Overlook, which is within an area closed to the public due to hazards like this. For scale, the lava lake is about 160 m (175 yards) wide from this angle. Right: This Quicktime movie shows the small explosion of spatter that occurred at Halemaʻumaʻu on Sunday, October 19. Spatter landed around the Halemaʻumaʻu Overlook (closed to the public).

October 17, 2014 — Kīlauea


Very little advancement of the flow's leading edge, but breakouts persist around flow front

The June 27th lava flow remains active, but has advanced only a minor distance - about 50 m (55 yards) - over the past two days. Activity persists around the flow front, however, with numerous scattered breakouts. The flow front this morning was 1.1 km (0.7 miles) from Apaʻa St., as measured along a straight line.

Left: Another view of the flow front, looking downslope towards Pāhoa. The smoke plumes are created by individual breakouts burning vegetation at the flow margin. Right: A closer look at the flow front, showing the leading edge moving through thick vegetation.

A comparison of a normal photograph of the flow front with a thermal image. The white box shows the extent of the thermal image. The thermal image shows that numerous active breakouts (white and yellow areas) are scattered behind the flow front.

A close view of the north margin of the flow, just behind the flow front.

This Quicktime movie provides a brief aerial overview of activity at the flow front.

October 15, 2014 — Kīlauea


Flow front advancement slows, but active breakouts persist near the front

The June 27th lava flow advancement has slowed, with the leading edge of the flow moving only a few tens of meters (yards) over the past two days. Nevertheless, active breakouts persist around the flow front, as shown in this photo by the continued burning of vegetation along the flow margins. This morning, the flow front was 1.1 km (0.7 miles) from Apaʻa St., as measured along a straight line.

Left: A wider view of the flow front from the north. The transfer station on Apaʻa St. is at the left edge of the photo, and Puʻu ʻŌʻō can be seen on the horizon in the upper right. Right: A closer view of the leading edge of the flow, which consisted of scattered breakouts along the flow margin that were slowly moving through thick vegetation.

A normal photograph along with a thermal image of the flow front. The white box shows the approximate extent of the thermal image. The thermal image clearly shows the distribution of active breakouts (white and yellow areas), which are scattered at the leading edge of the flow but are also present up to about 1.8 km (1.1 miles) behind the flow front.

Left: Although the advancement of the leading edge of the June 27th flow has been minor over the past two days, a view into a skylight on the lava tube today showed that lava in the tube was still swiftly moving downslope towards the flow front. Right: Puʻu ʻŌʻō Crater remains filled with thick fume, and activity in the crater has not changed significantly over the past week. In the lower portion of the photograph, a line of fume sources marks the path of the June 27th lava tube. The broad circular feature in the left portion of the photograph is the perched lava pond that was active in July.

October 13, 2014 — Kīlauea


June 27th lava flow remains active, continues advancing northeast

The flow front remains active, with continued slow advancement towards the northeast over the weekend. The flow front today was 1.1 km (0.7 miles) upslope from Apaʻa St. and 2.2 km (1.4 miles) from Pāhoa Village Road, as measured along a straight line. This photo, looking down flow and taken at a low altitude, shows the flow front direction relative to the transfer station and Pāhoa.

Left: A wider view of the flow front, looking upslope. Kaohe Homesteads is in the left portion of the image, and Puʻu ʻŌʻō can be seen on the horizon. Right: A closer view of the flow front, burning vegetation at its flow margin.

A view of the flow front from a normal camera (left) as well as from a thermal camera (right). The white box shows the extent of the thermal image. The thermal image shows that breakouts are active at the leading tip of the flow, and are also scattered upslope from the flow front.

Left: Active breakouts are also scattered around the area that lava first entered ground cracks. The smoke plumes mark spots where individual breakouts are burning vegetation. Right: Activity in Puʻu ʻŌʻō today remains similar to what we have observed during recent weeks. Several pits on the crater floor had small incandescent holes, and there appeared to be a small lava pond in the southern pit.

This Quicktime movie provides a brief aerial overview of activity at the flow front.

October 10, 2014 — Kīlauea


Flow front remains narrow, continues to advance towards northeast

The June 27th lava flow remains active, and continues advancing towards the northeast. The flow front today was still narrow, about 185 m (roughly 600 feet) wide. The flow front today was 1.3 km (0.8 miles) upslope from Apaʻa St. and 2.4 km (1.5 miles) from Pāhoa Village Road.

Comparison of a normal photograph with a thermal image. The white box shows the rough extent of the thermal image. The thermal image shows active breakouts (white and yellow areas) focused at the flow front but also scattered behind the front.

A closer look at the narrow flow front. Kaohe Homesteads subdivision in the upper left portion of the image.

Left: A thermal image of the flow front, which consisted of several lobes moving through thick vegetation. Yellow and white areas are active breakouts on the surface, while the red and purple areas are cooling crust. Right: This Quicktime movie provides a brief aerial overview of the flow front, showing its proximity to the the transfer station on Apaʻa St., and ends by panning over to show Pāhoa.

October 8, 2014 — Kīlauea


Flow front remains narrow, and continues slowly advancing to northeast

The June 27th lava flow remains active, and continues to slowly advance towards the northeast along the forest boundary. The flow front remains narrow, about 100 m (yards) wide, and was 1.4 km (0.9 miles) from Apaʻa St. and 2.5 km (1.6 miles) from Pāhoa Village Road (as measured along a straight line).

Left: A wider view of the flow front, with Kaohe Homesteads at the left side of the photograph. Puʻu ʻŌʻō can be seen on the horizon in the upper right. Right: A closer view of the flow front moving along the forest boundary. The flow front had nearly entered a clearing in the thick forest.

A normal photograph compared with a thermal image of the flow front. The white box shows the approximate extent of the thermal image. Breakouts (white and yellow areas in thermal image) were active at the leading edge of the flow, and were also scattered behind the flow front.

Left: A view into one of the skylights of the lava tube supplying lava to the June 27th lava flow. Right: A look into the southern portion of Puʻu ʻŌʻō Crater. A small lava pond (roughly 10 meters, or yards, wide) was active in the southern pit. The pond surface was fluctuating as spattering was active on the pond margin.

This Quicktime movie provides a quick aerial overview of activity at the flow front. At the end of the movie there is a view of the lava stream in one of the skylights on the lava tube supplying lava to the flow front.

October 6, 2014 — Kīlauea


Flow front continues advancing northeast, triggers brush fire

The June 27th lava flow remains active, and the flow front continues to advance towards the northeast along the forest boundary. Today, the flow front consisted of a narrow lobe moving through thick forest. The flow front was 1.7 km (1.1 miles) upslope of Apaʻa St., and 2.7 km (1.7 miles) from Pāhoa Village Road. The lava flow also triggered a brush fire that was active north of the flow front this afternoon.

Another view of the flow front and brush fire, with a thermal image for comparison.

A close-up view of the leading edge of the June 27th flow, which was active along the forest boundary. The thermal image shows the concentration of hot, fluid lava at the flow margin.

Left: Another view of the flow front, largely masked by thick smoke, showing the position of the flow in relation to the Kaohe Homesteads subdivision (left side of photograph). The brush fire extends off the right side of the photo. Right: Breakouts remain active upslope of the flow front, in the area that lava first entered ground cracks. Today these scattered breakouts were burning forest at numerous spots along the flow margin. Puʻu ʻŌʻō can be seen in the distance.

October 5, 2014 — Kīlauea


Satellite image shows update on flow front position

This satellite image was captured by the Advanced Land Imager instrument onboard NASA's Earth Observing 1 satellite. Although this is a false-color image, the color map has been chosen to mimic what the human eye would expect to see. Bright red pixels depict areas of very high temperatures, and show active lava. White areas are clouds. For reference compare the flow outline shown here in yellow to the large-scale flow field map provided in the "maps" link above. The grid shows coordinates in Universal Transverse Mercator, with a grid spacing of one kilometer (0.6 miles).

The flow front remains active. The satellite image shows that active lava at the flow front has advanced approximately 240 meters (790 ft) beyond the point where it was mapped on Friday, October 3 (yellow line). The flow front today was 1.8 km (1.1 miles) from Apaʻa St.

October 3, 2014 — Kīlauea


Slow advancement of flow front continues

Active breakouts continue at the flow front, with about 270 m (roughly 300 yards) of advancement since Wednesday, October 1. The flow front this morning was 2 km (1.2 miles) upslope from Apaʻa St. and 3 km (1.9 miles) from Pāhoa Village Road.

Breakouts continue upslope of the flow front, around the area where lava first entered ground cracks (about halfway between the Puʻu ʻŌʻō vent and the flow front). Today, several new, but small, breakouts were active in this area.

Left: The leading edge of the flow today was moving through a tall stand of trees. Right: Breakout of pāhoehoe lava on the upslope part of the June 27th flow.

October 1, 2014 — Kīlauea


Slow-moving surface breakouts extend flow front a short distance

The June 27th flow remains active. Slow-moving surface breakouts have reached the stalled flow front and extended the leading edge of the flow about 30 meters (yards). The flow front today was 2.3 km (1.4 miles) upslope from Apaʻa St. and 3.3 km (2.1 miles) from Pāhoa Village Road.

Another view of the front of the June 27th lava flow. The thermal image on the right corresponds to the area of the white box shown in the normal photograph. The thermal image shows the distribution of active breakouts (yellow and white colors) clearly.

Left: A skylight provided a view of the swiftly moving lava stream in the lava tube. Right: Activity in Puʻu ʻŌʻō Crater has remained relatively similar over the past several weeks. Small lava ponds and incandescent holes are present in several pits on the crater floor.

This Quicktime movie gives a brief aerial overview of activity at the flow front.

September 29, 2014 — Kīlauea


Slow-moving breakouts remain active behind stalled flow front

The June 27th lava flow remains active, with breakouts a short distance behind the stalled flow front.

A normal photograph of the front of the June 27th lava flow is compared here with an equivalent view from a thermal camera. The thermal image shows the extent of active breakouts more clearly. These breakouts have been advancing slowly over the past few days, and were present a short distance upslope of the stalled flow front.

This Quicktime movie gives a quick aerial overview of activity at the front of the June 27th lava flow. The flow remains active, with slow-moving breakouts about 2.5 km (1.6 miles) upslope of Apaʻa St. and 3.5 km (2.2 miles) from Pāhoa Village Road.

September 26, 2014 — Kīlauea


Puʻu ʻŌʻō and the June 27th lava flow

Annotated photo showing Puʻu ʻŌʻō and the vent and upper lava tube for the June 27th lava flow.

Annotated photo showing the terminus of the June 27th lava flow. Small, sluggish breakouts remain active upslope from the stalled front of the flow, near Kaohe Homesteads. More vigorous breakouts are active even farther upslope, midway along the length of the flow and on a pad of lava within the crack system.

September 24, 2014 — Kīlauea


Leading edge of June 27th flow stalls, but activity persists near flow front

The leading edge of the June 27th flow stalled over the weekend, but active breakouts persist near the flow front, a short distance behind this stalled front. Today, lava was slowly advancing on a different front, along the north margin of the flow. The burn scar from a brush fire triggered by the lava this weekend covers much of the lower portion of the photograph.

Left: Another view of the flow front region, looking northeast. Pāhoa can be seen near the top of the photograph, and is about 3.3 km (2.1 miles) from the stalled flow front. Right: Several skylights provided views into the June 27th lava tube today, and the fluid lava stream could be seen moving downslope.

The thermal image on the right provides a different view of the flow front, and clearly shows the scattered breakouts in this area. Most of these active breakouts were at, or upslope from, the slowly advancing flow front on the north margin of the flow. The leading edge of the stalled flow front, not surprisingly, did not have any active breakouts.

Left: A wide view from the summit, looking east. Halemaʻumaʻu Crater occupies the foreground, with the lava lake in the Overlook crater. At the skyline, Puʻu ʻŌʻō can be seen. The June 27th lava flow is fed from a vent on Puʻu ʻŌʻō, with lava traveling through a lava tube to the flow front. The position of the flow front is marked by a smoke plume as the lava at the front burns vegetation. Right: This Quicktime movie shows an HVO geologist sampling lava on the June 27th lava flow using a rock hammer. The lava is placed into a bucket of water to quench the sample. Lava samples like this are routinely collected for chemical analysis, which provides insight into the magmatic system feeding the eruption.

This comparison of a photograph with a corresponding thermal image shows a typical lobe of pāhoehoe on the June 27th lava flow. The highest surface temperatures in this image are just under 900 Celsius (1650 F), but if one measured the temperature of the lava beneath the thin crust it would be close to 1140 Celsius (2080 F).

September 22, 2014 — Kīlauea


Satellite image shows continued activity near June 27th flow front

This satellite image was captured by the Advanced Land Imager instrument onboard NASA's Earth Observing 1 satellite. Although this is a false-color image, the color map has been chosen to mimic what the human eye would expect to see. Bright red pixels depict areas of very high temperatures, and show active lava. White areas are clouds. For reference compare the flow outline shown here in yellow to the large-scale flow field map provided in the "maps" link above.

Although the front of the June 27th lava flow has stalled over the past few days, the flow remains active with surface breakouts immediately behind the front. These breakouts have expanded the margin of the flow several hundred meters (yards) towards the north. In addition, breakouts are active closer to Puʻu ʻŌʻō, and lava has been filling another ground crack over the past few days. The grid shows coordinates in Universal Transverse Mercator, with a grid spacing of one kilometer (0.6 miles). This image shows an example of the satellite data we use to augment our field observations, but also shows one of the major limitations of satellite data - clouds.

September 19, 2014 — Kīlauea


June 27th lava flow continues moving northeast, reaches open ground

The June 27th flow remains active and heading northeast, moving through Kaohe Homesteads. For several weeks the flow has been moving through thick forest, and today the flow front reached the forest boundary and more open ground. Nevertheless, active portions of the flow remain in the forest and fires continue. The flow front today was 2.4 km (1.5 miles) upslope of Apaʻa St.

Left: Another view of the narrow flow front. Kaohe Homesteads is in the lower left portion of the image. The vent for the June 27th lava flow is on Puʻu ʻŌʻō, which can be seen on the skyline. Right: View of the flow front, looking north. Pāhoa is located in the upper right portion of the photograph. The flow front today was 3.4 km (2.1 miles) from Pāhoa Village Road.

Views of the flow front from two different angles, with equivalent thermal images for comparison. The thermal images show that surface breakouts were focused on three areas near the flow front: 1) the flow front itself, 2) an area 300 meters (yards) behind the flow front and 3) a larger area about 1 km (0.6 miles) behind the flow front.

Left: A close-up view of the surface of the June 27th lava flow, near the flow front. The pāhoehoe flow is too thin and slow to topple trees as it passes, but instead the lava surrounds the trees and burns through the base. When the trees fall over, the flow surface may have cooled enough that the trunks remain intact. If the surface is hot enough to burn through the fallen trunks, all that remains is a line of ashen residue (see right side of image). Right: This Quicktime movie gives a quick aerial overview of the activity at the front of the June 27th lava flow. Kaohe Homesteads is in the lower left.

September 17, 2014 — Kīlauea


June 27th lava flow continues advancing northeast in Kaohe Homesteads

The June 27th lava flow remains active and continues advancing northeast in the forested, northwest portion of Kaohe Homesteads. The flow front today was 2.7 km (1.7 miles) from Apaʻa st. and 3.8 km (2.3 miles) from Pāhoa Village Road. Over past two days, the flow front has advanced at an average rate of 290 m/day (960 ft/day).

Left: Another view of the flow front in the northwest portion of Kaohe Homesteads. The leading portion of the flow front narrowed over the past two days and was roughly 150 m (500 ft) wide. Right: A view looking down the axis of the flow at the flow front. Pāhoa is in the upper right portion of the photograph.

Left: A close-up view of the flow surface near the flow front, which consisted of numerous, scattered small pāhoehoe lobes. Right: A view of the leading tip of the flow, which was moving through thick forest.

This Quicktime movie provides a brief aerial overview of activity at the flow front. Kaohe Homesteads is in the lower left.

Left: This thermal image shows the scattered pāhoehoe lobes that are active near the front of the June 27th flow. Right: A view of the flow front from tree level, with the lava hidden behind numerous tall trees.

Lava lake activity continues at Kīlauea's summit

Left: The summit eruption continues, with an active lava lake within Halemaʻumaʻu Crater. Halemaʻumaʻu fills up most of the image, and the lava lake can be seen near the bottom of the image contained within the smaller Overlook crater. Right: A closer look at the lava lake at Kīlauea's summit. The lake was roughly 53 m (170 ft) below the floor of Halemaʻumaʻu Crater this morning.

September 15, 2014 — Kīlauea


June 27th flow enters northwest portion of Kaohe Homesteads

The June 27th lava flow remains active and continues advancing towards the northeast. Recently, the flow front entered the Kaohe Homesteads subdivision, and is currently within the vacant, forested northwest portion of the subdivision. The flow front was 3.3 km (2.1 miles) upslope from Apaʻa Road and 4.3 km (2.7 miles) from Pāhoa Village Road.

Left: Another view of the flow front, in the northwest portion of Kaohe Homesteads subdivision. Right: A closer view of surface activity on the June 27th lava flow. This pāhoehoe flow consists of many small, scattered, slow-moving lobes burning vegetation.

Left: HVO geologists conduct a VLF (very-low frequency) survey to measure the rate of lava flowing through the lava tube on the June 27th lava flow. Right: An HVO geologist conducts a very-low frequency (VLF) survey of the lava tube to measure the rate of lava flowing through the tube. The measurement consists of two steps. First, a transect of VLF measurements across the roof of the tube is used to measure the cross-sectional area of lava flowing through the tube. Second, a radar gun is used to measure the speed that lava is flowing at that location. An open skylight is required for this speed measurement. By multiplying the cross-sectional area with the velocity, the volume rate of lava flowing through the tube can be estimated. Today's measurement showed a flow rate of 5.8 cubic meters per second (roughly 1500 gallons per second). Tracking the lava supply rate like this can be helpful for anticipating fluctuations in activity at the flow front.

This Quicktime movie provides an aerial view of activity near the front of the June 27th flow, where numerous pāhoehoe lobes are slowly burning vegetation.

This Quicktime movie shows the view through a skylight on the lava tube, which provided a clear view of the flowing lava stream.

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