June 23, 2016 Kīlauea
Puʻu ʻŌʻō lava flow continues advancing downslope
The episode 61g flow from Puʻu ʻŌʻō continues advancing downslope. In this photo, the current flow is the lighter color area along the center of the image. The flow front has advanced about 770 m (0.5 miles) since the June 16 overflight, which equates to an advance rate of about 100 m per day (330 ft per day). The flow front was roughly 100 m (330 ft) from the northern boundary of the abandoned Royal Gardens subdivision. Puʻu ʻŌʻō, and its plume, are visible near the top of the image.
Left: The lava pond in the western portion of Puʻu ʻŌʻō crater remains active, and has enlarged since our last observation. The pond today was about 50 m (160 ft) in diameter, with spattering along the western margin. Right: An HVO geologist collects a fresh lava sample for chemical analysis. The lobe being sampled was typical of the many scattered pāhoehoe breakouts along the flow margin today.
HVO geologists conduct a VLF (very low frequency) survey across the episode 61g lava tube to measure the depth and cross-sectional area of lava flowing within the tube.
Left: Incandescent vents are still open on the northeast flank of Puʻu ʻŌʻō. From the ground, no views of the lava were possible because the area around the vent was too unstable and dangerous to approach. Right: An aerial view of the same vent shown at left provided a look of the lava stream within the deep cavity.
June 16, 2016 Kīlauea
Puʻu ʻŌʻō lava flow still moving downslope
Left: The active surface flow from Puʻu ʻŌʻō is still advancing slowly downslope and was 4.4 km (2.7 miles) long when mapped today. Averaged over the past six days, the flow has been advancing at a rate of about 200 m (220 yards) per day. At that rate, it will take about 10 days to reach the top of Pūlama pali, which is in the middle distance about 2 km (1.2 miles) farther downslope. The coastal plain and ocean are in the far distance. The active flow is creeping across some of the last-exposed ʻAʻā flows erupted from Puʻu ʻŌʻō in the 1980's. Right: This view is of the front of the active lava flow, looking upslope. Puʻu ʻŌʻō is partly obscured in the clouds at upper left. Most surface activity on the advancing flow is actually where the flow widens, upslope of the flow front.
Left: The uppermost part of the nascent lava tube has several skylights, which reveal the lava stream within the flow, like capillaries beneath the skin. This is the uppermost skylight, just downstream from where the lava broke out from the east flank of Puʻu ʻŌʻō on May 24. Right: The lava stream was flowing toward the photographer in this photo. Higher lava levels are preserved in the shelf-like protrusions on the darker orange wall to the left.
Vents on Puʻu ʻŌʻō's northeast flank
Left: Several vents have opened on Puʻu ʻŌʻō's northeast flank since last December. A spatter cone grew over one of the vents in mid-May and is visible at the center of the photo emitting bluish fume. In recent weeks, a vent opened upslope from (to the left of) the spatter cone, revealing bright incandescence. The northeast edge of Puʻu ʻŌʻō's crater, filled with white fume, is to the left of this vent. Right: Though difficult to photograph, aerial views showed that this open vent was but a small window into a large, hot cavity beneath Puʻu ʻŌʻō's northeast flank. Inside, streams of lava from an unseen source (or sources) closer to the crater rim (visible at lower right) were cascading toward the upper left into unknown depths. This view, looking almost straight down, shows the surface of one of these lava streams through the open vent. The ground around this entire area is sunken, corroded, and unstable, and may someday collapse to form a pit.
June 10, 2016 Kīlauea
Lava flow southeast of Puʻu ʻŌʻō
Left: The only active surface lava on Kīlauea's East Rift Zone is the flow that erupted from the lower east flank of Puʻu ʻŌʻō on May 24, 2014. This flow continues to advance southeast, and was 3.3 km (2.1 mi) long today (June 10). This photo shows the front of the flow; Puʻu ʻŌʻō is in the background. Right: A closer view of the flow front, with Puʻu ʻŌʻō in the background.
June 2, 2016 Kīlauea
Views of Puʻu ʻŌʻō and its recent breakouts
Left: View of breakout on northeast flank of Puʻu ʻŌʻō. The light-colored flows in the foreground are active pāhoehoe flows. The view is to the southeast. Puʻu ʻŌʻō is at upper right. Right: View of recent breakout on east flank of Puʻu ʻŌʻō. The flow has advanced about 1.3 km (0.8 miles), but activity today was focused in the middle part of the flow, closer to its vent. The view is to the west.
Left: This photo, looking southwest, shows Puʻu ʻŌʻō in the background, with the northern breakout from May 24 extending to the right, with fume coming from a newly forming tube. The feature in the center foreground is a perched lava pond that formed in July 2014, but was refilled by new lava from the northern breakout in recent days. The breakout point of the eastern breakout is hard to pick out, if you don't know what to look for. It's the lighter colored lava at the left edge of the photo immediately below center. Right: Puʻu ʻŌʻō's current crater subsided by about 10 m (33 ft) in the days following the May 24 breakouts. This view, looking southeast, shows the crater as it was today. HVO webcams are perched on the edge of the Puʻu ʻŌʻō cone (an older crater rim) in the foreground.
Left: Middle: A close-up view of the spatter cone. Right: The ground around the spatter cone was covered in small gobs of spatter and Pele's hair, as shown here.
Left: Middle: A closer view of the skylight on the east breakout. The skylight is about 6 m (20 ft) across, and the lava stream is traveling toward the upper right side of the photo. Right: An even closer view of the skylight (about 6 m or 20 ft across). Again, the lava stream is flowing to the upper right.
May 27, 2016 Kīlauea
Two Puʻu ʻŌʻō lava flows continue; activity focused near vent
The two new flows that broke out on the flanks of the Puʻu ʻŌʻō cone on Kīlauea Volcano's East Rift Zone on May 24 remained active early this morning. The flows were spreading laterally near the vent, but making little forward progress; as a result, they were not posing a threat to any community. The silvery sheen of new lava erupting from the northern breakout (center) and eastern breakout (far left) stands out in contrast to the older flows on and around Puʻu ʻŌʻō.
May 26, 2016 Kīlauea
Summit lake level has dropped slightly; typical spattering activity
The summit lava lake in Halemaʻumaʻu Crater was at a high level earlier in the week, and partly visible from the Jaggar Museum Overlook at times. But over the past few days, the lake level has dropped slightly. Nevertheless, the activity on the surface of the lava lake has been typical of normal activity, with frequent spattering on the lake margins, as shown here. This view looks north from the rim of Halemaʻumaʻu Crater, which is closed to the public due to ongoing volcanic hazards.
Left: A wider view of the lava lake within the Overlook crater, from the rim of Halemaʻumaʻu Crater (closed to the public due to hazardous conditions). Two spattering areas were active, one along the north margin and another in the southeast corner of the lake. Right: A closer look at the northern spatter source, which spanned roughly 30 meters (100 feet) of the lake margin.
May 25, 2016 Kīlauea
Puʻu ʻŌʻō breakouts continue, but no significant advancement
The two breakouts that began at Puʻu ʻŌʻō yesterday (May 24) are still active. This morning, the active portions of both flows remained relatively short, extending no more than 1 km (0.6 miles) from their breakout points. The northern breakout, shown here, changed course slightly overnight, but is still directed towards the northwest in an impressive channel, with lava spreading out at the flow front. This video was taken at 8:30 a.m., HST, today (May 25).
Left: As of 8:30 a.m., HST, today, May 25, 2016, lava continued to flow from two breakout sites on the flanks of the Puʻu ʻŌʻō cone, which was shrouded by rain and steam during HVO's morning overflight. At the northern breakout (see maps at http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/maps/), a new lobe of lava broke out of yesterday's active channel and was advancing to the northwest. This new lobe of lava had advanced about 950 m (0.6 mi) as of this morning. Yesterday's channelnow inactiveis visible to the right of today's flow. Right: In this thermal image of the northern breakout, the active lava channel and flow front are clearly revealed as bright yellow and pink colors. The channel that was active yesterday, but now stagnate, is visible as a bluish-purple line to the right of today's active flow.
This morning (May 25, 2016), the northern breakout on Puʻu ʻŌʻō was feeding an impressive channel of lava that extended about 950 m (0.6 mi) northwest of the cone. This channel was about 10 m (32 ft) wide as of 8:30 a.m., HST.
Left: The second flow from the eastern breakout on Puʻu ʻŌʻōin the area of the "Peace Day" flow that broke out in September 2011remained active as of this morning, and its total length was about 1.2 km (0.75 mi) long. This lava flow was slowly spreading laterally, but the flow front had stalled. Right: A slightly closer view of the lava flow from the eastern breakout on Puʻu ʻŌʻō. This flow has not advanced significantly since yesterday, but it is slowly widening.
Left: Despite heavy rain, which resulted in blurry spots on this photo due to water droplets on the camera lens, HVO scientists were able to do some of the work they hoped to accomplish during this morning's overflight. Here, an HVO geologist maps the location of active lava from the eastern breakout on Puʻu ʻŌʻō. Right: Amidst steam created by rain falling on the hot lava, another HVO geologist uses a rock hammer to collect a sample of the active flow. Analyses of this sample will yield data on the temperature and chemical makeup of the lava, information that is needed to help determine what's happening within the volcano.
May 24, 2016 Kīlauea
Two new breakouts at Puʻu ʻŌʻō, but new flows remain close to cone
Two new breakouts at Puʻu ʻŌʻō began this morning just before 7:00 a.m., HST. The larger of the two breakouts, shown here, originated on the northeast flank of the cone, at the site of the vent for the ongoing June 27th lava flow. This breakout point fed a vigorous channelized flow that extended about 1 km (0.6 miles). This lava flow had not extended beyond the existing Puʻu ʻŌʻō flow field at the time this photo was taken (8:30 a.m., HST).
Left: A wider view of the larger breakout traveling down the north flank of Puʻu ʻŌʻō, towards the northwest. This photo was taken at about 8:30am. Right: Another breakout occurred just east of Puʻu ʻŌʻō, about 500 m (0.3 miles) from the crater, in the area of the "Peace Day" flow that broke out in September 2011. This second breakout was smaller than the one on the northeast flank, but was still feeding an impressive lava channel. At the time of this photo (8:30 a.m., HST), this flow was about 700 m (0.4 miles) long and traveling towards the southeast.
May 19, 2016 Kīlauea
Subtle uplift of Puʻu ʻŌʻō Crater floor over past few days
The crater floor at Puʻu ʻŌʻō has recently experienced minor uplift due to inflation within Puʻu ʻŌʻō cone. The crater floor uplift is subtle, and probably no more than about 1 meter (3 feet) since May 15. Small, hot cracks have appeared on the crater floor during the uplift. Time-lapse images from a thermal camera were used to make this video, which is looped 10 times to highlight the uplift.
May 9, 2016 Kīlauea
Scattered breakouts northeast of Puʻu ʻŌʻō; no significant advancement
Scattered breakouts persist northeast of Puʻu ʻŌʻō, with no significant advancement over the past month. Today, the farthest active breakouts were 5.8 km (3.6 miles) from the vent on Puʻu ʻŌʻō. Several small breakouts were burning vegetation along the north margin of the flow, at the forest boundary. This photo looks upslope, towards the vent. Puʻu ʻŌʻō can be seen on the skyline in the upper right portion of the image.
The small lava pond in the western portion of Puʻu ʻŌʻō Crater was at a higher level today compared to previous visits, and closer to the pit rim. A disruption in the pond created increased spattering and agitation during our observation period. For scale, the pond is about 25 meters (80 ft) in diameter.
April 12, 2016 Kīlauea
Scattered breakouts northeast of Puʻu ʻŌʻō, no overall advancement
Surface breakouts remain scattered northeast of Puʻu ʻŌʻō, with a slight retreat in the reach of active breakouts since the last overflight on March 25. Today, the farthest active lava was 5.7 km (3.5 miles) from the vent on Puʻu ʻŌʻō. Much of the activity was at the forest boundary, burning trees and creating numerous smoke plumes.
Left: One of the more vigorous breakouts on the flow field today, producing a sheet of blue-glassy pāhoehoe. Right: Views were hampered today by sporadic downpours. Once the rain passed, areas of active breakouts were evident by the larger steam plumes coming from the surface (for example, at the top center of the photograph).
View of Halemaʻumaʻu plume from HVO
One benefit of passing showers today at Kīlauea's summit was a double rainbow. Halemaʻumaʻu Crater is at the right side of the photo, and the gas plume from the active lava lake can be seen drifting towards the southwest. At the far right edge of the image, visitors take in the view at Jaggar Overlook.
April 8, 2016 Kīlauea
Summit lava lake level drops
HVO geologist uses a laser rangefinder to measure the depth of the lava lake at the summit of Kīlauea in the Overlook crater. The lake level was about 58 m (190 ft) below the crater rim this afternoon. In recent days the lake level has dropped about 35 m (115 ft) as tiltmeters at the summit have recorded a larger than usual deflationary trend. The spattering of the lava lake (middle right of photograph) was triggered by a small rockfall from the north crater wall directly above. Large rockfalls into the lake typically cause small explosions that hurl molten lava onto the rim of Halemaʻumaʻu Crater, one of the hazards of this area (for example, see January 8, 2016, entry below). The tripod in lower right supports one of the Web cams used to track activity of the lava lake.
March 25, 2016 Kīlauea
Breakouts northeast of Puʻu ʻŌʻō, a small lobe advancing through forest
Breakouts persist northeast of Puʻu ʻŌʻō, with scattered activity along the north margin of the flow field at the forest boundary. One narrow lobe of lava has pushed through forest over the past few weeks, and is 7.6 km (4.7 miles) northeast of the vent on Puʻu ʻŌʻō. This photo looks southwest, and the front of the narrow lobe is in the foreground, with Puʻu ʻŌʻō near the top of the photo. The breakouts active at the forest boundary along the northern flow margin can be seen by their smoke plumes along the right side of the photo.
Left: Another view, looking west, showing the activity along the forest boundary and northern flow margin. Scattered breakouts were burning forest in this area. In the upper left portion of the image, Puʻu ʻŌʻō can be seen. Right: The altered and fractured rim of Puʻu ʻŌʻō Crater is prone to small collapses. Portions of the eastern crater rim, shown here, have collapsed onto the crater floor, covering the recent lava flows with rubble.
Left: In the western portion of Puʻu ʻŌʻō Crater, there has been a small pit for nearly a year. The pit is about 60 m (200 feet) wide, and a small circular lava pond resides beneath the overhanging west rim of this pit. Right: HVO geologists walk along the edge of the inner crater in Puʻu ʻŌʻō, making stops periodically to perform laser rangefinder measurements of crater dimensions.
Halemaʻumaʻu lava lake remains active
Last Saturday, March 19, marked the 8-year anniversary of the start of Kīlauea's ongoing summit eruption in Halemaʻumaʻu Crater. Halemaʻumaʻu spans much of the width of this photo, and the small inner crater in the foreground is the Overlook crater, which contains the active lava lake. The gas plume at this time was originating from a spattering area in the southern portion of the lake, obscured by the crater wall from this angle.
March 4, 2016 Kīlauea
Breakouts persist northeast of Puʻu ʻŌʻō; small lava flows in Puʻu ʻŌʻō Crater
Scattered breakouts remain active northeast of Puʻu ʻŌʻō, with the farthest activity slightly more than 6 km (3.7 miles) from the vent. Some of the breakouts were active along the forest boundary, creating small brush fires. Other breakouts, like the one shown in this photograph, are covering earlier portions of the flow field.
Left: An HVO geologist carefully approaches a skylight on the June 27th lava tube. The skylight provided a view into the lava tube, and revealed a swiftly moving lava stream. Right: Small vents in the southern portion of Puʻu ʻŌʻō crater have been active recently, and erupting new lava flows onto the floor of the crater. The light-colored flow in the center of the photograph was active this morning, and slowly spreading across the crater floor.
Left: A closer look at the active flow in Puʻu ʻŌʻō crater, with a small vent in the distance throwing spatter. Right: A vent in the southern portion of Puʻu ʻŌʻō Crater contained a small lava pond and was throwing spatter a short distance. The accumulated spatter has built a small cone around the opening. A thick layer of Pele's hair covers the far side of the cone.
March 2, 2016 Kīlauea
Lava covers part of the Puʻu ʻŌʻō crater floor
This movie, created from a sequence of HVO webcam images, shows lava erupting from a spatter cone within the south embayment in the Puʻu ʻŌʻō crater (see February 24 image below for location). The activity started around 8:15 a.m., HST, on Wednesday, March 2, 2016, and covered part of the crater floor before ceasing at about 3:00 p.m. The lava did not flow beyond the crater. This type of activity is not unusual for Puʻu ʻŌʻō, and does not reflect a significant change in the ongoing eruption.
February 24, 2016 Kīlauea
Current configuration of Puʻu ʻŌʻō crater
Puʻu ʻŌʻō has changed dramatically over the years. This map shows the configuration of Puʻu ʻŌʻō's current crater (outlined in yellow) and vents (marked in red). The base image is a mosaic created from photographs captured during a helicopter overflight on January 19, 2016. The current crater, with a maximum width of about 290 m (317 yd), is nested within a much larger crater that was present in early 2011. The current crater is about 20 m (66 ft) deep and has distinct embayments at its northeast, northwest, and south sides. These embayments were pits when the current crater formed in mid-2014. A short distance west of the current crater is a 50-m- (~165-ft-) wide pit, informallly called the West pit, that contains a 25-m- (~80-ft-) wide lava pond. The source of the currently active June 27th lava flow is a vent on the northeast flank of Puʻu ʻŌʻō, about 250 m (273 yd) downslope from the crater rim.
Left: This photo looks north-northwest at the northeast embayment at Puʻu ʻŌʻō, showing the vent (a spatter cone) on the floor of the embayment. The heavy fume on the rim of the embayment is another vent. Right: This photo, also of the northeast embayment at Puʻu ʻŌʻō, is interesting because it shows the lava tube for the Kahaualeʻa 2 flow, active during 2013 and 2014, exposed high on the crater wall. The Kahaualeʻa 2 flow is the lava flow that preceded the currently active June 27th lava flow, which began June 27, 2014.
Left: This photo, looking to the west, shows the two spatter cones that mark vents on the floor of the southern embayment in Puʻu ʻŌʻō crater. Right: This photo looks north into the northwest embayment at Puʻu ʻŌʻō. The spatter cone on edge of the embayment (the dark object nearly surrounded by white staining) has not fed lava flows for several months, but incandescent holes on the spatter cone (not visible in this photo) show that lava still resides beneath it. The fume in the distance at upper right is from the June 27th flow lava tube.
Left: This photo looks west toward the West pit on Puʻu ʻŌʻō. Right: The West pit, as seen in this photo looking west, contains a small lava pond that is tucked partly back under the pit's overhanging southwest wall. The walls are, in fact, overhanging most of the pit's circumference, making the pit wider at the bottom than at the top.
February 12, 2016 Kīlauea
Scattered breakouts northeast of Puʻu ʻŌʻō
Scattered breakouts persist northeast of Puʻu ʻŌʻō, with much of the active lava moving along the northern flow field boundary, burning vegetation and creating smoke plumes. This view looks southwest, and Puʻu ʻŌʻō is near the top of the photograph.
Left: A closer view of Puʻu ʻŌʻō, looking northwest. The vent for the June 27th lava flow is at the right edge of the photograph, near the source of white fume. Mauna Loa (upper left) and Mauna Kea (upper right) are visible in the distance. Right: A narrow stream of lava pours from the top of a tumulus (roughly 3 meters, or 10 feet above the surroundings), attesting to the fluid pressure in the interior of the flow. This view looks north, towards the area that lava is burning forest. Mauna Kea is faintly visible in the distance.
Left: Clear skies today had bright sunlight filtering through the thick fume on the rim of Puʻu ʻŌʻō Crater. Right: Gas jetting sounds were originating from incandescent openings on this spatter cone on the floor of Puʻu ʻŌʻō Crater.
High level in the summit lava lake
Left: The summit lava lake level has continued to rise over the past week with inflation, and was about 30 meters (roughly 100 feet) below the Overlook crater rim. Right: A closer view of the lava lake surface. The white plume originates from lava spattering, just out of view.
January 19, 2016 Kīlauea
Scattered breakouts northeast of Puʻu ʻŌʻō; clear views in Puʻu ʻŌʻō Crater
Scattered breakouts remain active northeast of Puʻu ʻŌʻō, with the farthest active lava today at 5.9 km (3.7 miles) distance from the vent on Puʻu ʻŌʻō. Much of the activity is at or near the forest boundary, creating numerous areas of burning. This view looks southwest, with Puʻu ʻŌʻō visible in the upper left portion of the image.
Left: A closer view of Puʻu ʻŌʻō, just above the center point of the photograph. View is towards the southwest. In the foreground, the circular lava pond that was active in July 2014 is visible. The lava tube feeding the active flows on the June 27th lava flow is evident by the line of white fume sources extending off the right side of the photograph. Right: Viewing conditions into Puʻu ʻŌʻō Crater were exceptional today, providing clear views of the crater floor. This view is towards the northwest. The inner, deeper crater formed in mid-2014 following the opening of the June 27th vent, and occasional small flows on the crater floor are evident by their dark color. The smaller, circular pit in the west portion of the crater has contained a small, active lava pond in recent months. Very little of the original cone, formed in the early part of the Puʻu ʻŌʻō eruption in the mid-1980s, remains visible on the surface. The tan colored area in the foreground, and the brown sections of the crater rim in the upper part of the photograph, are the original portions of the cone and consist of cinder and scoria.
Left: This photograph was taken from the western pit at Puʻu ʻŌʻō, and shows the small lava pond (roughly 20 m in diameter) contained within the pit. Right: Incandescence was visible in the small pit that formed recently on the upper northeast flank of Puʻu ʻŌʻō.
Colorful sulfur deposits have formed recently around one of the cracks on the floor of Puʻu ʻŌʻō Crater.
Left: A view of the western portion of Puʻu ʻŌʻō Crater, with the small circular pit that contains the active lava pond. HVO's cameras are on the rim at the right side of the photograph. Right: A hornito has recently formed over the lava tube on the north flank of Puʻu ʻŌʻō, at the spot of the breakout that occurred on November 25.
January 8, 2016 Kīlauea
Early morning explosive event at Kīlauea summit lava lake
A rockfall on the east rim of the summit vent within Kīlauea Volcano's Halemaʻumaʻu Crater triggered a small explosive event at 3:51 a.m., HST, on January 8, 2016. Explosive events like this occur more frequently when the lava lake level is relatively high, as it has been this past weekaround 30-35 m (100-115 ft) below the vent rim. Rocks in the vent wall expand as they are heated by the high temperature of the lava lake and become unstable. Sections of these unstable rocks can then collapse into the lava lake. This Quicktime movie shows today's rockfall as seen from HVO and Jaggar Museum.
When large rockfalls impact the lava lake, they trigger explosive events that propel volcanic rock fragments (tephra) upward. This morning's event was vigorous enough to hurl incandescent fragments onto the rim of Halemaʻumaʻu Crater, about 110 m (360 ft) above the lava lake surface. This Quicktime movie shows some of these fragments flying toward the USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory webcam that is perched on the rim of the crater. Rockfalls and subsequent explosive events occur with no warning, and the resulting fragments of hot lava and rocky debris thrown onto the crater rim pose a significant hazard in this area.
Left: The January 8, 2016, rockfall and subsequent explosive event littered the rim of Halemaʻumaʻu Crater with fragments of molten lava. In this image, you can see what remains of the Halemaʻumaʻu Overlook wooden fence, which has been repeatedly been bombarded by spatter and rock fragments since 2008. The blue bucket attached to the fence is one of HVO's tephra collectors so that lava fragments and rocky debris ejected from the summit vent can be quantified and analyzed. Right: The rim of Halemaʻumaʻu Crater was covered in a nearly continuous blanket of tephra following today's early morning rockfall and subsequent explosive event. Tephra is the general term for volcanic rock fragments exploded or carried into the air during an eruption, and can range from dust-size particles to fragments more than 1 m (3.2 ft) in diameter. Two backpacks (in background), which belong to HVO scientists who briefly entered the area to collect tephra samples for laboratory analyses, provide scale for the fragments hurled onto the crater rim this morning.
The 10 cm (4-inch) pocket knife in this image provides scale for one of the larger fragments of molten lava that was thrown onto the rim of Halemaʻumaʻu Crater at 3:51 a.m., HST, on January 8, 2016. So much spatter was ejected to the crater rim this morning that it is hard to discern one lava fragment from another.
Coolest Pele's Tear ever!
This photo shows a one-of-a-kind, completely hollow Pele's tear about 1.5 cm (1/2 inch) long. It was found on the rim of Halemaʻumaʻu and was ejected in association with this morning's explosive event, probably during the aftermath when the lake surface was spattering vigorously.
January 7, 2016 Kīlauea
Halemaʻumaʻu lava lake
Left: In recent days, the lava lake in Halemaʻumaʻu Crater has been at a relatively high level. This view, looking roughly north-northeast, shows typical behavior, with lava rising into the lake at the distant end opposite the photographer, and sinking all along the base of the crater wall in the foreground and at right. Within this zone of subduction is a site of persistent spattering at the southeast edge of the lava lake, visible at the right edge of the photograph. On the morning of January 7 when this photo was taken, the lake was about 35 m or 114 ft below the rim. Right: Zoomed-in view of the spattering at the southeast corner of the lava lake. The vent wall is overhung in this area.