March 20, 2017 Kīlauea
A 3D tour of Kīlauea's summit lava lake
This 3D model of the lava lake at Kīlauea's summit was constructed from a series of thermal images acquired during an overflight on Thursday, March 16. For scale, the lava lake is about 250 meters (820 ft) across. The lake is within the Overlook crater, which is within Halemaʻumaʻu Crater.
The model shows that a portion of the Overlook crater wall, along the southern wall of Halemaʻumaʻu Crater, is overhanging. If this portion of the crater wall collapses it could trigger a small explosive event, similar to those which occurred in November and December of 2016.
March 16, 2017 Kīlauea
Lava stream at ocean entry continues
A firehose of lava continues to pour into the sea at the Kamokuna ocean entry, sending a plume of steam, hydrochloric acid, and glass particles into the air and drifting downwind. Offshore, lava entering the sea also produces plumes of hot, discolored water. The circular area of dark water in front of the entry is a region of cooler water between the split plumes of hotter water.
Left: A closer view of the ocean entry and plumes of hot, discolored water. Right: A thermal image shows the two plumes of hot water extending out from the ocean entry point. A circular area of cool water is directly in front of the entry point, between the two plumes. Several boats leave tracks of stirred-up cooler water cutting through the hot water on the surface.
A closer view of the lava firehose at the ocean entry. The lava stream here is roughly 1-2 meters wide (3-6 ft), and plunges about 20 m (66 ft) into the water.
Left: Puʻu ʻŌʻō started as a cinder and spatter cone in the 1980s, but over the past 30 years flank vents on the cone have produced stacks of lava flows, creating a broad shield around the cone. This view looks north and shows the shield shape clearly. Mauna Kea Volcano can be seen in the distance. Right: A lava pond has been present in a small pit in the western portion of Puʻu ʻŌʻō Crater for nearly two years. Unusually clear views today revealed several areas of spattering, and some crustal foundering.
Lava lake in Halemaʻumaʻu Crater rising over past day
Summit inflation over the past day has driven the lava lake to rise slightly. This morning, the surface of the lake was about 23.5 m (77 ft) below the Overlook crater rim. In this photo, spattering was occurring along the southern lake margin in two locations.
March 2, 2017 Kīlauea
Sluggish breakout on Kīlauea Volcano's coastal plain remains active
The surface breakout that started on February 10 remains active on the coastal plain just east of the main episode 61g lava flow field. The flow front, pictured here, advanced to about 300 m (0.2 miles) from the emergency access road in Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park, but appeared to be stalled this afternoon. However, there is still active pāhoehoe visible on the coastal plain, with the closest breakouts observed at about 500 m (0.3 miles) from the road.
February 22, 2017 Kīlauea
61g coastal lava flow remains active
Today (February 22, 2017), the breakout along the eastern edge of Kīlauea Volcano's episode 61g flow remains active and had advanced approximately 570 m (620 yards) since it was last mapped on February 14. The flow front consisted of sluggish, oozing pāhoehoe that was approximately 730 m (0.5 miles) from the ocean and 540 m (0.3 miles) from the emergency route road. Channelized lava flows have been recently reported on Pūlama pali, but no active channels were seen by HVO geologists while working in the area this afternoon. They did, however, observe scattered breakouts on the pali.
February 14, 2017 Kīlauea
A Valentine's Day view of Kīlauea Volcano's summit lava lake
Today, Kīlauea Volcano's summit lava lake level was 21 m (69 ft) below the vent rim. A long stretch of active spattering was visible along the east lake margin from the rim of Halemaʻumaʻu Crater, an area that remains closed to the public due to ongoing hazards. The usual spatter source to the southeast was small by comparison. In the afternoon light, the dark lava flows on either side of the vent rim were quite visible. These flows spilled onto the floor of Halemaʻumaʻu Crater in April-May 2015, and again in October 2016, when the lava lake level briefly rose above the vent rim several times.
A telephoto view of the east lake margin showed that the spattering was focused in small embayments created by promontories of cooled, congealed lava jutting from the vent wall.
At times, spattering along the east lake margin reached heights of 69 m (2030 ft), as shown in this telephoto image.
61g flow coastal breakout still active
The 61g flow breakout that started on February 10 on Pulama Pali was still active today. The flow front (shown here) is approximately 2.3 km (1.4 mi) from the base of the pali and 1.2 km (0.75 mi) from the ocean. The flow front is on the eastern side of the 61g flow field, and is outside the National Park boundary.
February 12, 2017 Kīlauea
High-tech instruments track volcanic gases at Kīlauea Volcano
Left: An FTIR instrument is set up on the rim of Halemaʻumaʻu Crater to measure volcanic gases from the summit lava lake. The open-path Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer continuously measures the gases in a volcanic plume, measuring the relative abundance of each. Most of the gas emitted during a volcanic eruption is water vapor (H2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), and sulfur dioxide(SO2).
Right: HVO's geochemist uses a Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR) instrument to track volcanic gases emitted from the lava lake with Halemaʻumaʻu Crater. These measurements help detect changes in gas composition, which can provide insight into the inner workings of Kīlauea Volcano.
View of the lava lake within Halemaʻumaʻu Crater from the FTIR spectrometer monitoring location. At Hawaiian volcanoes, magma ascends from the mantle more than 60 km (about 40 mi) below the surface, to a reservoir less than 2 km (about 1.2 mi) deep. As the pressure decreases, the gases dissolved in the magma bubble out and escape. Magma continues to rise through a shallow conduit to the Halemaʻumaʻu lava lake, where it continues to degas (the blue haze is indicative of sulfur gases).
February 8, 2017 Kīlauea
"Firehose flow" visible from public lava viewing area
Left: The "firehose flow" at Kīlauea Volcano's Kamokuna ocean entry was clearly visible from the public lava viewing area established by Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park. The viewing area is 800 meters (about one-half mile) from the ocean entry, but affords excellent views of the lava flow. Right: A telephoto lens captures a closer view of the Kamokuna "firehose flow."
VIDEO: Kīlauea Volcano's Kamokuna ocean entry. Today, the "firehose flow" could be clearly seen from the public lava viewing area, 800 meters (about one-half mile) east of the ocean entry, in Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park.
Left: Explosive interactions between the lava and ocean can throw spatter high onto the cliff around the ocean entry. Spatter in photo is visible scattered across the sea cliff with a glove for scale. Right: Close up view of the Pele's hair and Limu o Pele that blankets the sea cliff around the Kamokuna ocean entry. The coverage is especially thick in the areas downwind of the ocean entry which may make it difficult to see all areas of extended cracks.
February 2, 2017 Kīlauea
Sea cliff at Kamokuna ocean entry collapses
HVO geologists hiked to the Kamokuna ocean entry today to assess the status of the sea cliff. When they arrived, the "firehose" flow was no longer visible. However, spatter (bits of molten lava) and black sand flying through the steam plume indicated that lava was still flowing into the ocean and interacting explosively with seawater. Just below the left side of the steam cloud, a small shelf of the Kamokuna lava delta that survived the New Year's Eve collapse can be seen.
Within minutes of HVO geologists reaching the ocean entry site, the sea cliff seaward of the hot crack (see Jan. 30 images) collapsed with no warning; fortunately, they were far enough away to not be in harm's way. The top photo was snapped just before the collapse occurred. The bottom image shows the remaining sea cliff after the collapse. Yellow arrows point to the same rocks in both photos for comparison.
VIDEO: The section of sea cliff above the ocean entry collapsed today at about 12:55 p.m. The sea cliff had become increasingly unstable as a large crack 510 m (1633 ft) inland of the ocean entry had more than doubled in width, from 30 cm (1 ft) to 70 cm (2.5 ft), over the past several days. A video camera, which had just been set up to monitor movement of the crack near the sea cliff, captured the moment of collapse.
The entire section of the sea cliff that was seaward of the hot crack collapsed, except for a small block of rock (left) at the eastern end of the crack; this piece of the sea cliff, estimated to be 30 m long and 5 m wide (98 x 16 ft), remains highly unstable and could collapse with no warning. During the collapse, rocks hitting the ocean generated a wave that propagated outward from the coast. After the collapse, no lava was visible, but is apparently still flowing into the sea based on the continuing steam plume and explosions of spatter.
February 1, 2017 Kīlauea
Crack above Kīlauea's ocean entry has widened, increasing instability of sea cliff
The hot crack near the sea cliff, in the immediate area of the ocean entry, has widened significantly over the past four days. On Saturday, January 28, the crack was 30 cm wide (1 foot). Today, HVO geologists in protective gear briefly entered the area and measured the crack as being 75 cm (2.5 feet). In this image comparison, the yellow stars show corresponding points in the two images. The arrow also shows how much the crack has widened.
Remarkably, grinding noises could be heard coming from the crack, and the block of sea cliff on the makai (ocean) side of the crack could be seen to move slightly. These signs indicate that the section of sea cliff around the ocean entry is highly unstable and could collapse at any time.
From the lava viewing area established by Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park, you can witness Kīlauea Volcano's ocean entry from a safe distance. With binoculars or a telephoto camera lens, spectacular views and photos are possible (as seen here)without risking your life by entering the closed area. As lava streams into the ocean, explosive interactions between the molten lava and cool seawater hurl spatter and rock fragments skyward, often as high as the sea cliff, which is about 28 m (92 ft) high.
Left: Using a telephoto lens, spatter and glassy rock fragments (black sand) from the explosive interaction of molten lava and seawater can be seen flying skyward and seaward. At times, these fragments were thrown high enough to land on the sea cliff above the ocean entryone of many hazards impacting this area. Right: Detailed views of the "firehose" flow streaming from the lava tube, spatter, and rock fragments were provided by zooming the telephoto lens in even closer.
January 30, 2017 Kīlauea
Ground crack at Kīlauea ocean entry is cause for concern
Due to the instability of the sea cliff above the ocean entry and other hazards created by molten lava flowing into the sea, Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park has established a viewing area (noted by yellow arrow in photo) from which the ocean entry can be seen in relative safety.
Left: A thermal image taken during HVO's overflight of Kīlauea Volcano's ocean entry on Jan. 25, 2017, revealed a hot ground crack in the sea cliff just above where lava is flowing into the sea. Because the crack suggested an unstable sea cliff, HVO geologists briefly visited the site on foot for closer observations and measurements this past weekend.
Right: Carefully approaching the site in protective gear on Jan. 28, HVO geologists determined that the eastern end of the hot crack was about 30 cm (11.8 in) wide and deeply cut into recent lava atop the older sea cliff. The western end could not be accessed due to poor air quality, spatter fallout, and other safety concerns. This crack could be a precursor to collapse of an unstable section of the sea cliff, making the site extremely dangerous for anyone who ventures too closely to the ocean entry by land or by sea.
Using a thermal image of the crack above Kīlauea volcano's ocean entry (steam from lava flowing into the sea is visible at the top of the left photo), HVO geologists determined that the temperature within the eastern end of the crack is up to about 220 degrees Celsius (428 degrees Fahrenheit).
At Kīlauea's ocean entry on Jan. 28 and 29, the interaction of molten lava flowing into cool seawater caused pulsating littoral explosions that threw spatter (fragments of molten lava) high into the air. Some of these incandescent clasts fell on top of the sea cliff behind the ocean entry, forming a small spatter cone. During one exceptionally large burst, spatter was thrown about twice the height of the sea cliff. These ocean entry littoral explosions, both large and small, create hazardous conditions on land and at sea.